Case Study – Madhesi Dalit

September 14, 2006 at 10:15 am 57 comments

Case on Madhesi Dalit Problems 


The Dusadhs of Jhihjha

Dr. Dwarkia Nath Dhungel.
The Dusadhs of Jhinjha —- A humanitarian problem
(”Jhinjhaka Dusadhharu —— Ek Manaviya Samasya’‘) 

            Jhinjha is a small village located in the eastern part of Dhanusha district in the Janakpur zone. It takes about forty-five minutes to reach the village from the Mahinachpur station of Jayanagar-Janakpur railway, and fifteen minutes from the Khajuri station on foot.

                        The majority of the inhabitants of Jhinja village belong to the Dushadh community. Most of the Dushadhs have taken to theft and dacoity as their main occupation. In fact, they are the ring-leaders of the thieves and dacoits operating in the Mausi, Bel[…]ra, Lohani, and Belagopalpur areas of the Darbhanga and Madhubani Districts of
Bihar in India. That is why there is hardly anyone in the eastern Tarai who has not heard of Jhinja village.

            Jhinja village has a population of between 2,000 and 3,000, comprising 318 families, of whom 208 belong to Dusadhs. The rest belong to the Muslim, Dhanak,Chamar, Bona-Berahi, Teli, and Hajim communities. Except the Muslims, who comprise about fifteen families, the others are Hindus. A Dusadh wears a necklace of beads (Kantha) if he wishes to give as theft or dacoity as his occupation throught a pledge made in public. [Kantha]-wearing Dusadhs do not eat meat, and are called Dasas. Others belonging to the Dusadh community are called Paswans.

            Only twenty-five percent of the Dusadhs are literate. Only one Dusadh has so fara passed the intermediate examination in arts, and he is the most educated among Dusadhs. Only two Dusadhs have passed the S.LC. examination.

            Dusadhs have always been notorious at thieves oridacoits. Actually, theft and dacoity are their main occupations. Very few Dusadhs seem to have taken agriculture as their main occupation. The 208 Dusadhs families of Jhinjha own a total of only fifty bighas of land. The largest holding of a Dusadh hardly exceeds six bighas. There are also Dusadhs who own not more than two katthas of land each.

            The Dusadh of Jhinjha village maintain that they have been expelled to take to theft and dacoity because they thave no lands for cultivation. It is not known how far the claim is true. But it is true that the Dusadhs of Jhinjha village are notorious as thieves, and dacoits. They say they have been doing so far the past two or three centuries. Some Dusadh families have been following this occupation for three to four generations. The Dusadhs of Jhinjha blame the Rana regime for having compelled them to follow such an occupation for generations. According to them, local officials during the Rana regime used to detain and torture the Dusadhs of Jhinjha village whenever […] thy crime was committed nearby village. Even children were arrested and tortured, they allage. According to them, it was because of such exceedes that they took to theft and dacoity.

            During the seventh and ninth day (Saptari and Navami) of the dark [forthing] of every month, Dushadhs think of nothing but theft and dacoity. They assemble groups of five or ten persuns as soon as the dark fornight begins, in a meadow lacated near a big pond to the north of Jhinjhi village. Those who wish to bathe in the pond do so. Later, they hold discussions and decide on the place of the proposed crimes. They also discuss how to help the families of persons who are apprehended or killed while doing so. Members of their families arrive at the venue of the discussions with liquor and some foodstuffs. The liquor is prepared from palm juice. After relaxing for a few heurs, the gang leave for their respective assignments.

            According to the Dusadhs angaged in theft and decoity, their area of operations is situated only across the international border. They claim that they never commit any crime inside the territory of the Kingdom of Nepal, and that they go to Assam, Manipur, or even to Licknow and New Delhi, to carry out their assignments. The claim that the Dusadhs have never operated inside Nepali territory lacks credibility, inasmuchas the inhabitants of Jhinjha themselves have admitted that as they as forty Dusadhs have been imprisoned in Nepal Jails on the charge of having committed different crimes, whereas only fifteen Dusadhs are in Jail in the Madhubani and Darbhanga jails in India.

            Persons who are engaged in dacoity borrow money from money-lenders to meet their traveling expenses, as well as their maitanance expenses of their families during their absences. The money-lenders, particularly those residing at Khajuri, Thadi, Mahuwa, and Jayanagar, provide loans to them at [exorblent] rates of interest, usually 25 percent, on the ground of risk. No bond is executed at the time of advancing loans, nor is any member of the family of any dacoity recruited to repay it in the event of the latter being killed, or being released after inrpisonment. This si the reason why the money-lenders consider it risky to provide loans to dacoits, and agree to do so only after charging interest at the percent.

            The same money-lenders also buy the booty brought by dacoits at very low prices. The proceeds from the sale of the booty are shared equally by the members of the gang of dacoits. However, the ringleader (Khalifa) is paid an additional ten percent. With the income, so distributed, they repay the loans they had obtained from money-lenders and spend the balance for supporting their families as well as for the [………] when they are at home.

            In view of the efforts made by Sarvodaya workers, as well as by the Madhya Pradesh state government in India, to bring about a change of heart among the dacoits operating in the Chamar [ravines] and rehabilitate them, the Dusadhs of Jhinjha village also seem to have started thinking in terms of spending their life as ordinary citizens. They know that after the dacoits of Madhya Pradesh had surrendered before the Sarvidaya [porker] and the local State government, the dacoits of
North Bihar had followed suit. Following this, the Bihar government had urged on Dusadh dacoits of Jhinja village also to come from across the border and surrender. The people of Jhinjhi village say that the Dusadh dacoits had, in response to that appeal, gone across the border and surrendered before the Indian authorities. According to their own accounts, the local Nepali administration later called upon the Dusadhs dacoits to surrender before the Nepali authorities. In response to that call, they surrendered before the Janakpur [Spnal] Commissioner in August 1973. They had put forward the following demands: (1) All criminal cases against Dusadhs should be withdrawn. (2) Lands should be allotted to dacoits to enable them to make a living. (3) Dusadhs who seek jobs should be provided with the same. (4) A school and a health center should be opened for them.

            The local authorities had given assurances that their demands regarding land allotmens and employment should be fulfilled. Accordingly, foru Dusadhs were given jobs in the government and in aducational institutions. Morever, His Majesty’s Government has not so far undertakne any specific program for the benefit of the majority of Dusadhs. According to the Dusadhs, they have, therefore, submitted a petition to the concerned organ of His Majesty’s Government along with a note containing the assurances given by the local administration. No specific measures has no far been initiated for the rehabitation of the Dusadhs of Jhinjha village. As such the Dusadhs have continued their practice of committing dacoity. Each fortnight, 150 to 200 Dusadhs leave the village for this purpose.

            It is desirable to form a study team consisting of representatives of theMinistry of Home and Panchayat, the Department of Ressttlement, and other concerned organs as well as a sociologist or criminologist, to study ways and means for solving the problems facing the Dusadh dacoits. The team should consider the following questions;

(1) Whether lands should be allosted to Dusadha dacoits ill the same way as to landless persons, or a special program should be implemented for their rehabilitation.

(2) Since there is no gurrantee that Dusadhs will voluntarily give up their traditional occupation of dacoity even after their rehabilitation, it should be decided whether it will be appropriate to keep them under police waten or onder the surveillance on any other government agency.

(3) What type of tryning can be given to Dusadh dacoits after their rehabilitation in oder to enable them to know about the nation, nationsliss, the Crown, and the basic principles of the Panchayat system, as well as about the development programs of HMG?

(4) How will it be possible to make facilities (such as seeds, fertilizers, and leans) available to Dusadhs in areas in which they are resettled?

Gorkhapatra, Magh 8, 2033 (January 21, 1977).


Entry filed under: Articles.

Clash Of Two Civilization Land Reforms, Key to Social Harmony

57 Comments Add your own

  • 1. D.S.CHAMAN  |  March 27, 2008 at 12:19 pm

    No person is born perfect. Eradicate labelling them. A drop of water in ocean does not make an ocean. Labelling millions upon millions of Dosodhs from Chicagoan style ecological study will never ever be the method of choice. Dosodhs have their origins in Mewar. Dosodh Rajput generals had their noble deeds conspicuously manifested in Mewar battlefields against the Muslim (invaders). Social Economic, Political and Educational status etc restorations of paramount importance. Few Jhinjhatheves/dacoits do not represent so many millions of Dosodhs in Bihar. Not from ecological but anatomical metaphor study of Dosodhs, part of a finger dose not means the entire body of Dosodh community. Dusadhs word should be completely removed and replaced by the original status word of DOSODH RAJPUTH.

    Ecological study of Jhinjha dacoit / thieves is self explanatory. To conclude Dosodhs in the lower social status is absolutely wrong, illogical, irrational, and unfair. Approach the entire Dosodhs community of Bihar from sociologist and not from criminologist point of view, based on a study of an extremely tiny few thieves / dacoits. Specially for the attention of MPs and PM of India.

  • 2. Dr chandan Paswan  |  July 22, 2008 at 10:21 am

    Now the time has changed fast they are the one of the most neglected cast in Bihar but with thier continuous effert and diehard sprit they have carved out good respect in society through better education and honesty.Time has come no body can supres any body come encash the opportunity and show the world that not only revolver Dusadh can also hold pen with pefection as tha of crime

  • 3. Dipesh Kumar K.C.  |  September 5, 2008 at 6:39 am

    The study is better. It is the reality of the society. But social problem are neglected so it hit the core part of society.

  • 4. D.S.Chaman  |  February 17, 2010 at 12:50 pm

    Dr D.N.Dhungel’s case study “The Dusadhs of Jhinjha” is an eye opener. It deserves and requires some attention. Only one Dusadh with intermediate examination Art pass and only two Dusadhs in SLC examination pass in Jhingha village do reveal to what a great extent the Dusadhs were deprived and neglected in their education. This is the reality.

    The author of the case study has totally missed to reveal to over a billion population of India that Dusadhs are the Kshatriya Gehlote Rajputs of the hierarchical Hindu society. This is the reality.

    Criminological study of Dusadhs of Jhinjha can only lead to conclude that Dusadhs could be labeled as law offenders. What about those money lenders (sharks!) who encouraged law breaking by their high interest rates? Were they not committing illegal offences? This is the reality!

    Dusadhs were deprived and neglected. Innocent Dusadh children were arrested and tortured in Jhinjha village. The Dusadhs’ humble requests were denied, deprived and they were neglected by Institutional agencies of India, This is the reality!

    Dusadhs can have a leader like Lall Bahadur Shastri (Ex PM of India) with noble thoughts; noble actions and can lead the Indian Nation of over a billion inhabitants onto the path of righteousness. This is the reality.

    Don’t neglect the Dusadhs and don’t deprive the Dusadhs. Socially, Educationally, Economically and Politically in order to prevent core Indian society to be affected. This is the reality.

    As a non-Indian, I am proud to say “Jay Hind”! And “Vande Mataram” This is the reality

  • 5. D.S.Chaman  |  March 13, 2010 at 4:11 pm

    Many studies and analysis on Dusadhs and Paswans have opened my eyes. With the diploma in Criminology and a Degree in Social Anthropology, I come to only one conclusion that the Dusadh caste has been labelled as a low Dalit caste. Myths, Mythologies, literatures and folklore stories on Chooharmal and Sailesh have been so written as to further label Dusadh caste as low Dalit caste. With a diploma in Psychology, i can ask how miserable and how agonising the Dusadhs and Paswans must be feeling by being excluded, dispossessed, marginalised, segregated, separated, rejected, dejected, deprived and made salivated continuously by Pavlov operant to conditioning method by making them stare at the empty plate without any crumbs. Chicagoan style and Lombroso style of labelling Dusadhs and Paswans as deviants in the hierarchical Hindu caste society has left them with no Human Rights whatsoever. Caste system is the cancer of hierarchical Hindu caste society, yet caste system is blatantly practised in India and even outside India where there are Hindus. Diploma in Religion makes me state that religion is the root cause of racism, discrimination and prejudice in hierarchal Hindu caste society.

    In June 1980, two groups of Hindus were fighting in the train going to Delhi from Arrah, each group of Hindus were fighting in the train going to settle their differences, discussing with punch and kicks whether the Dusadh is a low caste or high caste.

    My certificate in law reminds me that the Hindu caste system has been abolished, I wrote a book based on research done on Dusadh caste in the British library. The book “Dusadhs, Are they the Gehlote Rajputs ?” by D.S. Chaman has evidence that the Dusadhs belong to the Kshatriya caste. Even Lt.Col. James Todd’s book provide evidence that Dusadhs do belong to Kshatriya caste. Perhaps, my future book “ A Dusadh Monarch on Chittor Throne ?” based on my solo research on Mewar History will be another evidence for the caste Hindus that Dusadhs are really Kshatriyas.

    Dusadhs and Paswans are Rajputs, not Dalits, Dusadhs and Paswans are progressing by leaps and bounds. Who says caste system is abolished for ever ? Who says caste system is dead and nailed inside the coffin for incineration, for eradication and for obliteration ?

    Caste system is alive and blatantly practised in hierarchical Hindu caste society all over the world. Of course there are a few mutations in the system. My forensic experience for more than a decade can only make me declare that the DNA of caste system is getting more and more resistant to the toxic effect of the ineffective Indian constitution that abolished it.

  • 6. D.S.Chaman  |  March 13, 2010 at 10:57 pm

    Dr D.N Dungel,
    Your study is a unique case of a handful ofdusadhs
    deviants whose problems can be solved by the paswans of
    jhinjha whowho can understand them better since they are in
    close proximity to them. rhe dusadh deviants be educated,
    educated and educated about the wrongs and the rights of

    They do desperately need support and help . They have to be explained clearly that dacoitism and thefts are both against the law of the .expain until they understand psychological approach.

  • 7. d.s.chaman.  |  April 17, 2010 at 9:44 am

    dr.d.n.dhungel, it is true people live with bread ,but it is also true that people do not live with bread alone. i.e live with dignity, social status.why degrade dusadhs to lower caste when they are of KSHATRIYA CASTE:- JAIN connoisseur told lt.col.james todd that dusadhs are is the list of gehlote cula sachas:- aharya, mangulia, seesodiya, peepara, kalum,gahor,dhonia,konecha, godah,mugrasah,bhimla,kamtotuc,kotecha,sorah,gohur,cosebah,nir-roop,nadoria,nadhota, ojakra, kootchra, DOSAUD i.e. DUSADH.,batewara, paha, poorote.
    dusadhs became extinct in mewar because they fought to the last person on the battlefield for their rawals,maharawals,rnas and the maharanas, but thousands upon thousands of dusadhs left for bihar there are millions of kshatriya dusadh caste in bihar. dusadhs do not live with bread alone. better look at the poverty plight of millions of dusadhs in bihar from the humanitarian poit of view rather fron the lower caste point of view.prejudice and discriminationagainstdusadhs,separated,segregated,marginalised, rejected, disspossed,suppessed,oppressed, depressed, stigmatised,labelled as lower caste when in fact RAJPUTS, subjected to violence and abuse, deprived of social,educational, political and economic help, prevented to flow in mainstream hindu society, treated as inferior people, used as escapegoats, denied human rights,denied housings,lands for agriculture,subjected to bond slavery,subjected toxenophobic ideology,,controlled and dominated by caste hindus,at the mercy of Darwinian survival of the fittest,, and with myths and mythologies,literature and folklore stories so construted as to reinforce the dusadh as lower caste.all these are not going to help the poverty plights of millions of dusadhs in bihar and you should strogly reccomend the humanitarian ways of solving their immense problems including the problems of a few dusadh dacoits and thieves. i was in piro,rajpur and sassaram where i saw and i met dacoits and thieves, but the informants in june and july of 1980 had told me that those dacoits and thieves were not of dusadh caste. what cter castes those dacoits and thieves belonged to.?there are other castes which have dacoits and thieves. even rajpur police told me they were sorry that i had to face the dacoits and thieves. they were definitely not dusadh dacoits and thieves. this reminds me of the baddit queen phoolun davy film i saw on the screen.about dacoits and only suggestion is to solve the problems in bihar from the humanitarian point of view d.s.c


  • 8. D.S.Chaman  |  April 20, 2010 at 7:12 am

    why my last response does not appear on the internet screen?

  • 9. d.s.chaman.  |  June 10, 2010 at 10:49 am

    nitish c.m. , for you to woo dusadhs and not turn them into mavericks and for you to get votes,show that you help them on humanitarian grounds by giving them educational. political, social, cultural,economical, rights and opportunities,also show that you give them lands for houses, lands for agriculture and facilities that go with it, and show that you give them the ir absolute right to claim their gehlote rajputh social status without the label of stiigma on their forehead.let them have due respect in the mainstream of caste hindu societry to woo them especially for vetes , help them on humanitarian grounds and do not garginalise, isolate, disposs, segregate and deprive them of their true gehlote rajputh kshatriya status of the mainsteam caste hindu society they have been under the rawals,maharawals,ranas and maharanas of the glorious sisodiya clan of the 36 royal races of india . woo them by embracing them as rajpuths and not with the label of stigma thrust upon them they are not born mavericks.they are human s just like you. to hold the head held high in the mainstream of the caste hindu society. woo them with love. open the door of your heart to woo them is to get their votes for you to stay in every nook and corner of bihar there dusadhs, and to woo them is by sympathising and empathasing use of benevolent procedures. throughout bihar. d.s.c

  • 10. d.s.chaman.  |  June 10, 2010 at 11:04 am

    dr,d.n. dhungel, all studies done on people unemployed, in poverty, in poor housings, economically marginaslised, segregated, ,divided families, tend to become mavericks and look for a life of existence doing crimes of all sorts in western societies. similar situations in bihar would no doubt make them embark onto the path of deviiancy.hunger and no help from the government force people to become criminals in western societies.the attraction of prosperous life by criminal activities is quite a well known fact that sociologists and criminologist and policy makers are fully aware of. d s c.

  • 11. santosh prasad dusad  |  June 21, 2010 at 2:25 pm

    hi i am a dusad from assam. Nice aritcle…..i know a lots. Earliar i was not aware about so many fact. Thank you for enlarging my knowledge…..good wishes.

  • 12. Ajay Dusadh  |  October 14, 2010 at 11:20 am

    Hi,Its great to read about my community.i think the information is really good.I knew from the ancestors specially my maternal granny that we belong to a great caste,even greater than Brahmins.Now i know that,because we all belonged to rajsthan where rajputs are considered above than Brahmins. I have heard my grad father singing songs in which heros of dusadhs and gods from delhi are mentioned.I knew now why many of us are tall and strong built and fair. But from antropological point of view this community is mixed up.There seems great ralationship in Rana lakha of Mewar(Died in 1426 AD at Gaya)gaya varanasi and Dusadhs.Please someone do have some reflections on that.

    My ancestors belonged to Ara,Pero,bhojpur belt.

  • 13. d.s.chaman.  |  December 16, 2010 at 11:16 pm

    dusadestiny with noble thoughts.very few of them chose evil ways of dacoitism driven by poverty plights.what drastic measures have dhs are capableof noble behaviour.they can shape their own been taken by the ruling class to righteous living? dusadhs are really gehlote rajputs. do they know this?they are kept deliberately in ignorance. good society has good people, caring for each other,respecting each other.what civility does exist between dusadh gehlote rajputs and the ruling class of jhinjha villagewhat virtuous tasks have been doneby the ruling class over the ruled poor people of bihar?no more criminalisation.educate the civil sofew deviants how to live in jhinjha ciety.

  • 14. d.s.chaman.  |  December 21, 2010 at 11:59 am

    dr dhungel case study madhesi dalit a humanitarian problem on dusadh of jhinjhallagea considerable concern to dusadh community specially when majority of jhinjha village belong to dusadh community with most ofadhshad taken to theft and dacoity as main occupation, quite well known to eastern tarai ,with identity of wearing neclklace of beads,pledging in public their wish as main occupation of theft and dacoity,non meat eaters,called as dasas, not as dusadh gehlote rajputs.dusadhs ” maintain that they have been expelled to take to theft and dacoitry because they have no lands for cultivation” is this evidence that poverty was the fault of the poor dusadhs of jhinjha village ?deprived and ” expelled ” rana regime and punished by local rana regime officers. is no insecurity man mortal enemy?miserably unfortunate dusadhs of jhinjha village madhesi dalit, no dr dhungel dusadhs are genuinely the true dusadh gehlote rajputs of the hierarchical hindu society.dusadhs are khatriyas of the sisodiya race of royal families of rajasthan.notorious money lenders extorted ” ehorbitant” rates of interest from dusadhs and even bought the Booty” cheaply from the same dacoits and thieves.yet the dacoitts were criminalised and penalised and the money lenders were not.criminology f and penology to the poor dusadhs and not to the rich money lenders who fuelled the works of theft and dr dhungel partial or impartial?” dusadhs of jhinjha village also seem to have started thinking in terms of spending their life as ordinary citizen.” but ” his majesty”s govthas not so far undertaken any program for the benefif of the majoritty of dusadhs…… specific measureshas so far been initiated for the rehabilition of the dusadhs of jhinjha village?” whose fault is thiswhen”the dusadhs have contunued their practice of committing dacoity?” is poverty the fault of the poor dusadhs of jhinjha villace?dr dhungel”s case study will open the eyes of the literate dusadhs and paswans to ask indiasn govt to get perfect solution to solve this titanic humanitarian problem of madeshi gehlote rajput problem.dusadhs gehlote rajputs are capable of doing noble deeds for india just like their ancestors didin mewar rajasthan.criminology and penology will not provide the magic solution to the dusadh gehlote rajputs of jhinjha village poverty is not the fault of the poor. where there is a will there is a way and let the indian govt open doors of school to teach the dusadh children instead of them being punished for the crimes of their elders just like the rrana regime local officials did . dr dhungel has rightly highlighted thebig humanitarian problem of the dusadh gehlote rajputs (not dusadh dalits)( indian govt let thy will be done and may god bless thy indian govt. .with my most respectiful and kindest regards to dr dhungel and his most appreciated case study may i apologise if i have criticised the wors unnecessaarily and i hope i have not carried coals to newcastle by putting my comments i dr dhungel is a very highly educated and literate person who shows how carefully studied the madhesi humanitarian problem of the dusadh gehlote rajpuths compar3ed to dr dhunghel i have not reached the doctorate level though i am just a mere diploma in histhopathelogy, diploma in religion,diploma in psychology, diploma in criminology, certificate in legal method and a bscin social anthropology.indeed my speciciality is in the subject of forensic tmedico technical works. hope that my opinion s and views would ope the eyes of the literate dusadhs and literate paswans i do sincerely praise dr dhungel for giving his ideas and i consider him as a honourable man who has not hesitated to tell the truth about the dusadh gehlote rajputs of jhinjha village may so kindly and so humbly request dr dhungel to read my book …..dusadhs, are they the gehlote rajputs? or better still read the famous and magnificent book of lf col james todd book annals and antiquities of rajastha. any comments on my opinion and views dr dhungel”s case study wiil be most heartily welcomed ihave in mind that the indian govt will find a complete and a perfect solution on the dusadh humanitarian problem….dsc


    9 not dali

  • 15. d.s.chaman.  |  December 28, 2010 at 4:50 am

    dr dhungel”s unique xcase study has provided a very good diagnosis of the pathlogical condition of the social disease of jhinjha village dusadh s , but perseverence of the applications of the continuous humanitarian medicines to cure or even eradicate the local social problems have not been vigorously and tenatiously implemented and followed by the higher agencies, thrreby letting the stigma and the label get stuck to these dusadhs who are not dalits but who are dusadh gehlote rajputs. these gahlote rajputs” concerns were not herd, their complaints were not heard and their wish to reform to be good citizens fell on deaf ears of higher authorities,and so criminological and penological tacticts and approaches by higher agencie s to curb the cancerous social problems of jhinjha village continued to persist in affecting the mainstream of the indian society.
    in 1980 there dacoits and thieves in piro. informents said the dacoits and thieves were not dusadh gehlote rajputs. who were they?
    in 1980 in rajpur i met dacoits and thieves face to face. one informent j mentioned that the dacoits and the thieves were not dusadh gehlote rajputs. who were they?
    in bihar there are other castes too with dacoits and thieves whose case studies do not appear to be commented. why?
    dusadhs are not dalits. paharilall gahlote of lahore punjab, now part of pakistan,has clearly showed that dusadhs are gehlote rajputs in his published hindi book ” JIAN YOGH”.
    lt col james todd book ” ANNALS AND ANTIQUITIES OF RAJASTHAN” can provide the true fact that dusadhs ( dosodhs) are gehlote rajputs. my book too reveals the true social class or caste status of the dusadhs……….dusadhs, are they the gehlote rajputs?
    any member of any caste should be treated with dignity. there are millions of dusadhs all over the world and dr dhungel case study does lack this vatal issue that dusadhs are genuinely gehlote rajputs dalits of bihar. they need humanitarian help at all cost to make them do deeds of good citizens of india not just of jhinjha village.
    i do still do thik that dr dhugel has done a very good case study which has given me to comment from a sociological perspective and hope that these comment would provide knowledge for the expansion of knowledge and for the advancement of the indians or the people of the world.
    there is no malicious intention whatsoever when i make these comments. i do honestly hae great for the mahadalits who do also deserve humanitarian help. every human being does have
    dignity and should be treated with respect. whether in jhinjha or in any part of this blue planet.
    let here be understang and a step forward towards progress for hamanity.

  • 16. d.s.chaman.  |  January 20, 2011 at 7:39 pm

    what progressively practical measures have been rigorously taken to successfully eradicate dusadhs pocket of poverty? what progressive humanitarian policy has been taken to improve the social status, to improve the educational status, to improve the economic status and tto stop the sharks or the shylocks to give them money at exhobitantly high interest just for the sake of embarking them with deliberate intention for dacoitism and thefts? those sharks are not punished but the children of those dusadhs are victims of criminology and penology for crimes not perpetrated by those innocent dusadh children. dr dhunghal has completely forgotten this very cruciial issuef his research . did those sharks and those shylocks know that dusadhs are gehlote rajputs or the kshatriyas of suryavansi rajput clan of the sisodiya clan, perhaps the most nobl3e of all the royal races of hindusthan? i dont think that dr dhunghel knows about this. the dusadhs of jhinjha village have been thrust into dacoitism and thefts by those sharks who knowingly pushed them into dacoitism and thefts. dr dhungel does not mention that those sharsk have been reprimanded and requested not to help those dusadhs of jhinjha village. criminology and penology to those dusadhs is not the solution to those dusadhs understanding those dusadhs probl3ejms and t carefully planned strategy to improve their living standard is the solutios. humanitarian help, not criminology and penology strtegy. education education and educatiion to those dusadh children and not punishing those dusadh cildren for crimes not committed by them. why not apply the science of law for the bright future of the dusadhs of jhinjha village? let the progeny of those dusadhs walk with their hesd held high by walking on the path of righteousness? educate them not to do what their father have done . dr dhungel, your research is an eye opener. no researcher is perfect in their work. hope that my comment would help agecies to ameliorate the conditions and standards of life of dusadhs in jhinjha village .dsc

  • 17. d.s.chaman.  |  January 22, 2011 at 1:48 am

    hope this is my final commeny.dg dhungel has done a fantastic research report on dusadhs of jhinjha village.his findings are to to bring to the attention of the public and authorities the awareness of problems dusadhs of jhinjha village have caused his findings can encourage and stimulate authorities to focus on the nature of the problems and provide guidance to solve the problems.his findings can involvre active debates if certain people find the reports unsatisfactory higher authorities can even take more confrontational stanceexpecting to stop unless it ends satisfactorily. political involvement is one tactic. media is another i tactic. pressure group is another one. people provide ideas and suggestions how to solve the jhinjha village problems, different groups of the community can unite to bring social change for the better, because they are aware of the presence and significance of the problems. they share feelings and concerns they can exert pressure on the government which is sensitive to public pressure.the problems demands a big proportion of social inquiry . people should care to read and understand the research findings.dsc

  • 18. d.s.chaman.  |  January 22, 2011 at 1:54 am

    sorry there has been a mistake instead of dr you find dg. doctor dhungel hope my final comment to your satisfaction.dsc

  • 19. d.s.chaman  |  April 7, 2011 at 9:03 am

    sailesh is raja sailesh,a true kshatriya of solar race, whose territories ranged from Nepal to the very borders of the sacred River Ganges in Indis.He can never be labelled a Dusadh Caste as low.He has a sacred Shirine in Nepal where people of all castes go to pay homage.respect and reverence to Raja Sailesh. Few dusadh deviants do not represent the ntire Rajput Dusadh Caste of the Hindu Society of India Crimes,criminals and punishment are the healthy tools for a healthy society God is society .Society is God So, why put a label?In God name let society function heathily. Let the milk of humanism feed the hungry mouths.Poverty creates deviancy.Has God created poverty?Whose fault is this?People? Govvernment? or the Deviants?My personal experience in 1980 led me to know there are many other castes who practise dacoity and thefts in Bihar. Not just a few dusadhs of Jhinjha vallage.India has MAOISTS and many other groups which destabilise India.Majority of dusadh kshatriyas are law abiding people.what India is doing to eradicate the evils in Jhinjha Village?


    sRaja Sailesh

  • 20. d.s.chaman  |  April 10, 2011 at 11:26 am

    the sub headings on the dusadhs have openad my eyes. the case study of dr. d.n.dhungel appears to give qualitative and quantitative data on dusadhs of jhinjha village that the dusadhs were committing mere thievings. the case study does not appear to provide a single thread of evidence that the dusadhs were notorious dacoits and commiting aggravated thefts. , just mere thievings. the research study does not appear to show a single thread of evidence that the dusadhs did carry notoriously vicious weapons to commit aggravated thefts and dacoity. indeed dusadhs killed but not a single thread of evidence that the dusadhs did kill their single victim viciously with the use of notoriously vicious wepons. hence, just thievings, not dacoity . yet dusadh children became victims of criminology and penology . punishment from Enlightened People? i expected to see the research study to contain ideas of durkheim, foucoult, elias, freud, weber, marx, garland and also the social scientist silvermann facts on qualitativ e and quantitative data analysis ratherthan imposition of the researcher views of labelling , discriminating and lack of total commitments of the higher authorities to help the dusadhs on petty appears there are bias and prejudice elements thrust onto the dudadhs of jhijjha village. dusadhs………sailesh…..dusadh caste as low… what does this mean? low caste? dusadhs are rajputs. sailesh was a rajput raja whose territory was from Mithala( raja Janak of Ramayana) to the territory to the Ganga River. the dusadhs were the defenders of Hindu Dharma just like RAJA SAILESH,just like RANA LAKHA, just like RAJA SHIVAJI, just like MAHARANA PRATAP SINGH, aned their descendants in the jhinjha village deserve humanitarian help not based on caste issues but based on humanitarian issues, and NITISH KUMAR cm of bihar should not let the fate of dudashs be at the mercy of the MAHADALIT COMMISSION but be discussed rationally by the social scientists of INDIA. it still eppears that there should be sense and sensibility, proper logical rules and disciplines of the wesrwern Enlightened social scientists involved to provide a well balanced decision on the DUSADH PAJPUTS of jhinjha village.

  • 21. d.s.chaman  |  April 18, 2011 at 9:44 pm

    150 to 200dusadhs have to be educated and not to be subjected to criminologists to be labelled ,criminalised and subjected to shame.lord clive of india won the famous battle of plassey thanks to the dusadhs in calcutta. big army of dusadhs entered benares and gaya to expell the notorious muslim invaders bent to create hinduless UP and bihar. rajadailesh fought with his army of dusadhs to keep his territory from nepal to river ganges and fought to keep his territory free from invaders. 150 to 200 dusadhs need to be educated to fight against unsocial acts and this battle is very important to win so as to put themselves onto the noble pedestal of dusadh gehlote rajput statusof the caste hindu society of india. 150 to200 dusadhs needed the medicine of education and not labelling and criminalisation.

  • 22. d.s.chaman  |  April 25, 2011 at 11:18 pm

    social problems of 150 to 200 have been neglected. by whom? and why? the demand that all criminal cases be withdrawn is not the appropriate medicine to the150 to 200. appropriate medicine is appropriate education .negligence is not the appropriate medicine to the 150 to 200. there should be a lot more than the four demands and all of them should be specfif to the 150 to 200 to eradicate the neglected social problems.there are so many paswans who claim to be educated yet they dot appear to come forward to help their dusadhs with social problems. why paswans cannot educate the dusadhs to the path of righteousness? the shocking truth about the puppy boy was the negligence. here is the shocking truth about the neglected social problem. the longer the social problem is neglected the more the deliberate intention to prolongue to put a stigma on the 150 to 200. negligence and delay to administer the right social medicine the the greater the opportunity to put the label on the dusadh gehlote rajputs. Is this not true?


  • 23. d.s.chaman  |  May 14, 2011 at 10:14 am

    the western sociologists say that society is healthy with crimes and criminals. Dr. Dunghel, do you agree with this statement? please do get in touch with enlightened western sociologists. there are elements of bias and prejudice verging onto discrimination against the dusadh gehlote rajputs of jhinjha village, is not it dr dunghel? why you have kept silent on your comments on the children who did not perpetrate any crime whatsoever? are you on the side of the law? or your case study is meant to be intentionally stigmatising the dusadh gehlote rajputs of jhinjha village? in the name of humanity, humanism and on humanitarian grounds , why do you not ask the CM of bihar to look into the social disease of bihar and administer immediate medicine as there are countless social evils in the bihar society coming from all castes of bihar. it is good to bring a bucket of ganges holy water to a thirsty horse, and yet even flogging the horse would not make the horse to drink the water of life of the holy ganga. is this not true? in 1980, i was in bihar, and there was sheer drought, and the villagers asked me to write a letter on their behalf to pray to the directers and cm of bihar to let open the gates that prevented the holy water to irrigate their agricultural fields. they had humbly asked me to addressed the dorectors and the cm as GODS. Gods, let thy will be done now before it is too late . poverty is man made, not GOD MADE. how poor people of bihar going to get crops when the land is dry? by swlling themselves into slavery? Gods, show the path of righteous and do not let us go astray. prove that you are true GODS to the poor. of bihar. I ASK NOTHING FOR MYSELF and may my humble requests be the begging bowls on behalf of all the poor citizens of BIHAR.

  • 24. d.s.chaman  |  May 30, 2011 at 8:38 am

    first dusadh gehlote rajputs are the most stimatised group of people then their fate is to be decided by the mahadakit commission whether to be integrated into the mahadalit group of people,. why integrate them to the mahadalits ? why not integrate them into the main stream of the vast hindu society with humanitarian help they deserve? was the reintegrative shaming theory used with those few dusadh gehlote rajputs or just they were victims of disitegrative shaming political tacticts?

  • 25. pradip kumar paswan  |  June 10, 2011 at 5:08 am

    Thanks to writers for informing our new generation of this community. our grandfather almost repeating about choormall and tell us our home land was mewar. but i have some quries we have any relation with dusad of jat gotra. i think it may be possible. And also the name of dusadh ruler of mewar. If we are labelling as schedule caste in future may it remove from caste category. (pradip kumar paswan)

  • 26. d.s.chaman  |  July 27, 2011 at 8:01 pm

    does deviancy lead to social control? or does social control lead to deviancy? what is the right policy for rhe dusadhs? what has helped the dusadhs? or who has permanently solved the problems of the dusadhs? or just solved the problems for a certain period of time? what good education have they been given to get good jobs in order to have good investments? even security jobs and police being their traditional caste jobs , can they have the opportunity to climb up the ladder of higher education for barristers jobs, doctors jobs. for solicitors jobs of the high status that the high castes do most likely to get ? the future is so bleak for the dusadhs ,how can they move up to the high social status? pradip kumar paswan, have you heard about dusadh generals who fought aganst the ismic invaders in khatiawa ? have you heard about dusadh generals who fought agains the muslim invaders of me war?the missing history of dusadhs of mewar…………….is there a dusadh historian in India who can write about it?

  • 27. d.s.chaman  |  July 28, 2011 at 7:16 am

    does deviancy lead to social control? or does social control lead to deviancy? what is the right policy for rhe dusadhs? what has helped the dusadhs? or who has permanently solved the problems of the dusadhs? or just solved the problems for a certain period of time? what good education have they been given to get good jobs in order to have good investments? even security jobs and police being their traditional caste jobs , can they have the opportunity to climb up the ladder of higher education for barristers jobs, doctors jobs. for solicitors jobs of the high status that the high castes do most likely to get ? the future is so bleak for the dusadhs ,how can they move up to the high social status? pradip kumar paswan, have you heard about dusadh generals who fought aganst the ismic invaders in khatiawa ? have you heard about dusadh generals who fought agains the muslim invaders of me war?the missing history of dusadhs of mewar…………….is there a dusadh historian in India who can write about it? dr sp ram ,president of dusadhs in india i have heard that he has written a book in hindi which book i would like to read and know how much he has written on the dusadhs but veejay kumar is supposed to have sent to me for the past many many months, and i am still waiting for it. somany book on mewar does not say anything on the dusadhs of mewar. my research in 1980 in bihar has led me to discover a lot on the dusadhs of mewar and perhaps the book of dr s.p ram hindi book might the impetus to make me write on the dusadh generals in the defence of hinhu faith etc etc.

  • 28. neermala  |  September 24, 2011 at 7:51 pm

    Hi i am a non indian so but my family origin is from india, recently i cam to know that on the indenture list we were lable under the caste column as being dussaud, while looking for details i came to this site i would like if anybody come acrss this to let me know if they can trace my family real origin. coz according to the chrt we are from Sohurghauty and mu ancestor traveld from calcutta frm to nov 1860 and arrive here in feb 1861 he was on the “spirit of trade’ please help me to carify my origin and family background….

  • 29. Ramkhelawan  |  November 27, 2011 at 3:26 pm

    Hi I am a dussad from Mauritius. My ancestry traces to India, maybe Bihar or Culcutta.
    My grandparents say we are Gehlot Rajputs, but we are considered low caste and even labelled chamars, especially by the Vaish, in Mauritius.
    Would you please let me know whether Dussads are Rajputs in reality!!
    And if you claim thar Dussads are Rajputs, then how come that this is disputed and still subject to debate even in India?
    Many thanks for your reply.

  • 30. d.s.chaman  |  January 29, 2012 at 12:12 am

    mr ramkhelawon,why not read d.s.chaman book dusadhs, are they the gehlote rajputs ? book should be in the library there.

  • 31. coolmaddy  |  February 19, 2012 at 12:18 pm

    I am really shocked the way the words “theft and dacoity” has been repeated again and again in this article. This article has been written to generalize dusadh community by putting a case study of a handful of 208 dusadhs of a small village……. may I ask what is the profession of other castes of that locality…….how many people are employed in that area ?……..what is the literacy rate in that area ?……..If land has been taken away by dominant upper caste then how could a person practice agriculture………By the survey conducted by the planning commission….Dusadh is the second most developed community after “dhobi” in scheduled caste……….and not to mention their low population. Dusadh community has produced great men/women in every field….medicine,engineering, IAS, Politics….the greatest of them Mr. Ram Vilas Paswan whose name is mentioned in the guiness book of world records for defeating his opponent in Lok Sabha Elections in Hajipur………not to mention the number of times he was made minister in lok sabha and that also when he belonged to a party who which was not in a position to hijack the govt. Whichever ministry he got he made a revolutionary change in that…railways, telecom, post, fertiliser and chemicals………and remember he has no corruption charge Neat and Clean

  • 32. d.s.chaman  |  March 4, 2012 at 12:27 pm

    it is my dream to see hat one day the dusadh gahlot rajput raja sailesh statue of 5 foot 8 inches tall will stand on a high pedestal in patna in the most prominently popularly -visited place. it is my dream to see one day the dusadhs have been recognised as the kshatriya varna of the clasical holy varna system of manu or bhrama

  • 33. SAHADEW Kaveeraj  |  June 22, 2012 at 5:39 pm

    Congrats Mr Chaman, you are doing a good job. Dusadhs are Rajputs and this is well acknowledged by Rajputs of Rajasthan, Delhi and Gujerat. They have affiliations with our Sabhas in Mauritius.
    Kaveeraj Sahadew from Mauritius.

  • 34. SAHADEW Kaveeraj  |  June 22, 2012 at 6:04 pm

    Wish to tell everybody that I am the one via whom Rajputs of Rajasthan, Delhi and Gujerat happened to know Rajputs in Mauritius. I led a delegation in 1997 in Rajasthan to do some research work on Dusadhs. In Jaipur, Udaipur, Jodhpur, Chittor, Delhi and Gujerat, Rajputs already recognise Dusadhs as part and parcel of the great royal clans. This is why they have been attending our functions year in year out. I made a speech before some 40000 people gathered to hear me as guest from Mauritius during the annual Jauhar celebrations held in March 2004. Were present Maharaja Gajsingh, H.E. CM Vasundhra Raje and many other eminent personalities. I have already met H.E. Pratibha Devisingh Patil, President of India, Maharanas of Mewar, Ex-Minister of Agriculture and BJP leader Rajnathsingh, Karan Singh of Congress I, among many others. Want to tell you that my son’s name is Rana Pratap Singh and that of daughter is Rani Pudmini Devi Singh. Have met you twice when you visited Mauritius and hope to see you again. In Mauritius, Dusadhs have already affirmed their dignity as Rajputs and are progressing.

  • 35. Gautami  |  July 19, 2012 at 3:59 am


  • 36. d.s.chaman  |  October 15, 2012 at 9:03 pm

    regarding the values and abuse of chilren,please read the book———parental sex preferences by d.s.chaman.

  • 37. chandresh kumar  |  December 20, 2012 at 9:24 pm

    thnx for our introduction.but now we are changed.we were so poor since from our we are also we r understanding the importance of education.

  • 38. chandresh kumar  |  December 20, 2012 at 9:32 pm

    as the earlier one gentleman hv mentioned dat we r dacoits. bt we were no thief in past days.we were also kshtriya.1 important incident i wnt 2 inform u dat.the actual mening of dusadh is duh+sadhya=duhsadhya.

  • 39. d.s.chaman  |  December 23, 2012 at 10:39 am

    dr dhungel research proves beyond reasonable doubt paswans ans dusadhs are totally divided with titanic problems. highly educated paswans did not help or support dusadhs with neighbourhood watch principle to ensure a safe community for people to live without fear. dr dhungel did not even mention paswans and dusadhs are gahlot rajputs. was this forgetfulness or intentional ? g.o.k. votes are politically divided beyond reasonable doubt with their political platform tottering under the caste adversaries……chandresh, importance of money too.

  • 40. Rama  |  December 25, 2012 at 9:52 am

    This is totally wrong survey. U cannot judge a community as a theft nd if it is wright then ask bihar gov. That y the chaowkidari job is mainly reserved for this community begining 4m the british time. Nd funny thing is that wat is written against this community “theft nd dacoits” is totally opposite 2 offered job. So they should take moral that a particular area of community not the fact of his history life which they belong actually.

  • 41. d.s.chaman  |  January 9, 2013 at 2:35 pm

    i do observe my previous several comments have been removed , I based my comments on criminological and sociological perspectives and was expecting others to refute my comments and criticise those theories or perspectives, but my comments have been removed. hence i have other sociological and criminological perspectives and theories to put forward to invite others to comment on my lasts few comments. i have no intention to make dr dhunge l research a ridiculous one. his research is very good for comments.

  • 42. d.s.chaman  |  January 11, 2013 at 6:37 pm

    prison is no place for rehabilitation and integration of deviants in society comfortably deviants should be cautiously engaged and managed with respect paying utmost care for their wellbeing . any bad treatment can only lead to make them nurse hatred for the criminql justice operatives and do become hardened criminals.. why remove my previous comments? i wish others could comment on my comments. the word dalit carries the stigma, the label and insult to the dignity of a human being and iappropriately called dalit caste or dusadh caste inspite of the fact this deviant dalit of jhinjha village has the historical evidence of gahlot rajput status. a fact not mentioned in the research. i have no intention to look down on the research. the research is good but why comments be removed ? expansion of knowledge is important.

  • 43. d.s.chaman  |  January 19, 2013 at 11:40 am

    hope my comments are not removed as it has been done in the past. dusadhs are seen as victims and not as culprits you have so far seen the two sides of the same coin of dusadh deviancy but the third side on the same issue is the engagement and management of the dusadhs with reliable higher authorities policies and principles that work. From the point of view of RESPECT the dusadhs and the paswans deserve HUMAN RIGHTS PRINCIPLES…..applied to them they are INDIANS not to be discriminated against This is
    a case research study of madhesi dalit .. A case on…madhesi dalit problems a humanitarian problem. At the far end of the tunnel is Human Rights. Is it not?

  • 44. d.s.chaman  |  January 22, 2013 at 11:01 pm

    dusadh deviants were put into indian and nepalese prisons not reffered to probation or social services. rehabilitation out of question. their families had to survive somehow were they victims of the criminal justice operatives? jhinjha village offered a mirage of food banks, notoriously cruel. did the culprits become victims?

  • 45. d.s.chaman  |  January 29, 2013 at 9:29 am

    prison means confirmation of retribution and the research does not mention rehabilitation though it is a recommendation.this is to show that initially there was no idea of rehabilitation before putting the deviants into prisons by the criminal justice operatives. prison does not mean dollars to the poverty stricken dusadh dalit deviants whose children and families have to go hungry. dalit means low social status ….a title thrust upon the dalits. prison means psychologigal punishment . prison means physical puniishment. punishment for their children and their families who had to go hungry and survive without food. reasonableness, rationality and fairness with reintegration attitude could have saved money to the c.j. operatives desistance from crime could have been achieved with appropriate dialogue by logical engagement and sensible management with the deviants who had become victims of situations circumstances and kismet rehabilitation virtually non existent in the actual research …….no chance to solve the problems. loan sharks led them into temptation and it did not deliver them from the evil. the c.j. operatives should have removed that evil …..the loan sharks. only a holistic approach could have solve the madhesi problems of the dusadh deviants………..still some of the comments have disappeared. why?

  • 46. d.s.chaman  |  February 11, 2013 at 8:58 am

    trere are 45 comments now appearing on the screen. but there were 51 . where are the otrers gone………. i had commented for others to comment on my comments. there was the issue raised that the dusadh dacoits and the notorious dusadhs theieves could have been the victims of the criminal justice operatives and the victims of the loan sharks. sociologists could not give them the gahlot rajput status and the criminologists coulld only put the stigma of label that they were criminals. they were the victims of hunger and poverty, or panauty !

  • 47. d.s.chaman  |  March 6, 2013 at 10:44 am

    any neutral position by researcher when deviants stimatised , labelled and discriminated against ? unemployment hunger and poverty taken into consideration for generations?no social no probation services for generations for community service? no formal education for centuries?deviancy continued for generations to end in humanitarian problems?no provisions for hungry families and children for generations?loan sharks getting profitable business for generations? no mention they killed but some of them killed and provisions made for their families and children by other deviants. burden to treasury of state? the criminal justice system responsible for generations?

  • 48. the diet solution  |  April 10, 2013 at 4:01 am

    I believe this is among the such a lot important information for me.

    And i’m satisfied reading your article. But should observation on few basic things, The website taste is perfect, the articles is in reality great : D. Excellent job, cheers

  • 49. d.s.chaman  |  July 4, 2013 at 10:25 pm

    The diet solution is full of poison ..The few dusadhs do not represent more than five million dusadhs in India..How the researcher can miss such vital information of paramount importance about dusadhs?This article can never be great, perfect and excellent..A few bricks do not a prison make nor a few iron bars a cage. Alan Bryman social research methods provides excellent observation on few things too!

  • 50. RUNG BAHADOOR HEMANT KUMAR  |  September 17, 2013 at 7:43 pm

    Proudly say we are Rajputs in Mauritius .

  • 51. ROUSHAN KUMAR  |  June 27, 2014 at 6:58 pm

    thanks to d.s.chaman sir … for his work ,hope this will help many of dusadh to maintain their dignity in the society.. and also hoping that society may understand dusadh…. but it is a request to u sir please do smthing which wud much more noticiable to our society… our society realy need this to know, still many unaware of this research work..

  • 52. Kaveeraj Sahadew  |  June 28, 2014 at 1:38 pm

    Dusadhs are part and parcel of the great Rajput community. Bihar and Uttar Pradesh have no morale right to not accept the Dusadhs as Rajputs. These two states are lagging behind with time and are making the greatest of mistakes about which they will surely repent in the far future.
    Kaveeraj Sahadew

  • 53. Kaveeraj Sahadew  |  June 28, 2014 at 1:41 pm

    Mr Chaman is a great Rajput fighter. He significantly deserves our support for all that he is doing to upgrade the Dusadhs.

  • 54. chandan dosodhs  |  February 7, 2016 at 5:57 pm

    Dr. Dwarkia Dungel Nath. Why are you mad theft linked to the thing itself, I am aware he writes about Jinja

  • 55. dev chaman  |  January 7, 2017 at 8:56 pm

    i feel like writing more about dusadh gehlote rajputs from new details gathered in india in1980 when i visited mr sinha at patna state house and i met the governor of bihar mr laloo ? in his very bedroom in bihar governor palace. my conversations with mr sinha and the bihar governor were very amicable and the information gathered from them woud be very fruitful to the dusadh paswans as well as to the dusadhs in india , mauritius,trinidad,guyana, fiji eu etc

  • 56. A V Kumar  |  January 29, 2017 at 6:29 am

    I see that this article was written in the year 1977 and reproduced here in 2006. So there is not much of a point to get into the debate on the content of this article. However, one good thing it has done is that readers have given a lot of input about the community and thats indeed commendable. I am happy to know that people in far off Mauritius has sustained their caste identity and are keen to know about their roots.

  • 57. d.s.chaman  |  February 13, 2017 at 9:55 pm

    i read comments from others that there is a challenge ……….where is the proof? from india and from mauritius such challenges have appeared. is there any dusadh who can provide the proof? perhaps one day the proof will appear .

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