Madhesh Integration into Nepal: Historical Case & Context

February 24, 2007 at 6:33 pm Leave a comment

Madhesh Integration into Nepal: Historical Case & Context 

— Compiled by, Ram Manohar 

A Short exploration of how Madhesh (East to West) was integrated into Nepal 

Vijaypur Kingdom

The Kingdom of Vijayapur was conquered by King Prithvi Narayan Shah  in July 1774. This Kindom was situated between the Koshi river in the west and  the Tista river n the east. It possessed territories nothe in the hill regions (the modern disctricts of Dhankuta, Panchthar, Taplejung, Tarhathum and Sankhuwa-Sabha) and the Tarai (the modern districts of Morang, Sunsari and Jhapa). After it was annexed by King Prithivi Narayan Shah, the Kingdom of Vijayapur was split into two administrative units with headquarters in Chainpur and Morang, for the hill territoeies and the Tarai respectively. On the eve of the Gorkhali conquest of Morang, the area appears to have been devastated by famine. Nepali source materials are not available to indicate the extent of the devastation in Morang, but conditions across the border, in Furnea, are revealing.”


     This also shows, how the seperatism move was first started by Prithivinarayan Shah. 

Saptari & Morang

The message brought by Dinanath Upadhyaya was presented before the Governor-General’s Council. At the meeting, the Company government decided that it would give up its claim to the Tarai regions of Ambarpur and Vijayapur, i.e. Saptari and Morang districts, in case the Nepal government undertook to ban the entry into its territory of armed Nagas who plundered people in the area from Hardwar to Dinajpur. An agreement along these lines was actually concluded between the Nepal government and the East India Company. The Company government felt satisfied when the areas ravaged by the Naga bandits inside its territories were resettled.”


Parsa & Rauthat

For three years, Nepal continued sending a 21-feet tall elephant to the British. As elephants of the height were not available in the forests, in subsequent years Nepal sent an elephants of a height of approximately 19 feet. At first, the British raised objection to this. But when Dinanath Upadhyaya produced an agreement signed between Nawab Mohawat Jung and Ram Narayan, which provided for the presentation of and elephants of that height, the English officer, George Vansittart, agreed to accept such an elephant annually. The dispute over Parsa and Rautahat was thus finally settled. Warren Hastings, the new governor General of the Birtish East India Company, accepted Nepal’s sovereignty over the Tarai



“At the age of fourteen, Prithvi Narayan was married with twelve years old Indra Kumari, the daughter of King Hemakarna Sen of Makawanpur. Queen Chandra Prabhavati wanted to have matrimonial relation with Makawanpur with a view to get some help of arms and ammunition from Makawanpur. The marriage ceremony was held in Makawanpur. After the Marriage was solemnised, Prithvi Narayan Shah wanted to take his wife with him, but according to the custom of Makawanpur, she was not to be sent to her husband immediately after the marriage. He came alone to Gorkha. After some time, he went Makawanpur to take his wife. But a dispute arose between Prithvi Narayan Shah and the king of Makawanpur and Prithvi Narayan Shah left again Makawanpur alone. On his way back to Gorkha, he went to see the kingdoms of the valley. He disguised himself as an ordinary man and from the hill of Chandragiri he saw the valley kingdoms, which he wanted to conquer for himself.

                               When the king of Makawanpur heard that Prithvi Narayan Shah had ascended the throne of Gorkha, he invited him to visit Makwanpur and take his wife with him. Prithvi Narayan Shah was unwilling to go to Makawanpur to invade the valley. So, he went to Makawanpur. But no good understanding between the two kings could be established. It so happened that the soldiers of Makawanpur saluted Prithvi Narayan Shah without removing their shoes. Prithvi Narayan Shah considered this as an insult. So, in a fit of passion, he beheaded some of them with his sword. At this, there were serious exchanges of hot words between Prithvi Narayan Shah and the Prince of Makawanpur, Digbhandhan Sen. Prithvi Narayan Shah returned to Gorkha empty-handed but with full information about the Malla rulers of Kathmandu valley.”


“In 1738, Prithvi had a humiliating experience over the arrangement of his first marriage to the princess of Makwanpur. The angry boy had returned without the bride, Indrakumari, because of ego clashes with the bride’s brother, Digbandhan Sen, and en route to Gorkha, had secretly come to take a look at the Nepal valley.”


The above document doesn’t talk about futher course, when King Prithivinarayan Shah betrayed King of Makwanpur, and take away the kingdom. King Prithivinarayan leveraged his marital relationship with capture Makwanpur 

Naya Mulk (Banke, Bardia, Kailali and Kanchanpur)

“East India Company (EIC) could not return the monitory loan it got from Nepal immediately because of the economic crisis following the mutiny. In stead, it returned 5 districts through a 1860 Treaty with Nepal”



Entry filed under: Articles.

Dialogue for Integrated and Affluent Nepal राज्य पुनःसंरचनाको आन्दोलन

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