Madhesh or Terai and Tharus or Madheshis: New Frontier of Etymopolitics in Nepal

March 14, 2007 at 9:32 am 16 comments

Madhesh or Terai and Tharus or Madheshis: New Frontier of Etymopolitics in Nepal

Vivaswan Kumar

(A response to the article by Bhulai Chaudhari, The Telegraph Weekly, Nepal, March 2006)

With the growing consciousness among Madheshis towards their rights and identity as evident from even the recent Madheshi movement, as some people have been preferring the use of word Madhesh (for example, parliamentarian Matrika Yadav’s interview in ‘Nepal’ on 28 January 2007 [1], and opinion of noted columnist C. K. Lal in Social Science Baha’s conference “Nepal Tarai: Context and Possibilities” [2]), few activists like Bhulai Chaudhary (The Telegraph Weekly, March 2006), without basing on plausible arguments, have come up with the radical opinions of no existence of Madhesh at all in Nepal! Such claims coming at current sensitive time when all Madheshis have risen united against the centuries long discrimination from the state and have been protesting on unprecedented scale, it may be possibly targeted at foiling their effort, by making crevices in the unity of Madheshis and producing ambiguity in the definitions of cause and goal of the movement or even creating confusion in the definitions of Madhesh and Madheshis themselves. Alternatively, it may be just an attempt of few quarters to gain popularity and political space by creating controversial bumps at such fragile turns, though baseless it may be. For example, some quarters have been trying hard to take out the identity of Tharus out of the identity of Madheshis at such a moment of united struggle for their rights, something similar to how the state divided Madheshis into different lingual groups in its first census for imposition of Nepali language solely, in educational and administrative system, and thus “diluting” the demands of Madheshis by dividing them when they revolted back in 1950s (Guneratne, 1998: Modernization, the State and the Construction of a Tharu Identity in Nepal, pp.758, The Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 57, no. 3).

This essay reviews the opinions put forward in the article by Bhulai Chudhari (The Telegraph Weekly, March 2006) and provides an insight into the issues with the evidences to remove the confusion created in people, deliberately or indeliberately, by that article.


Terai (also written as Tarai) stands for “a strip of undulating former marshland, that stretches from the Yamuna River in west to the Brahmaputra River in the east” (Encyclopedia Britannica). It is used to refer to the region of marshy grasslands, savannas, and forests at the base of the Himalaya range, in India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh. Etymologically, the word Terai is presumed to be derived from Persian, meaning “damp”, and various Hindi and Urdu dictionaries also define it as land at the foothills of mountains, often damp and swampy (Gaige 1975: Regionalism and National Unity in Nepal, pp.2, University of California Press). Encyclopedia Britannica also implies the meaning of “Terai” as “moist land”. From Tharu language point of view, as put forward by some authors, it is assumed to be derived from “Tar” meaning “low” thus rendering the meaning of “Terai” as “low-lands”, though the transnational, trans-ethnic and trans-lingual usage of word Terai may put this etymology into question. Whichever may be true, but all the existing etymologies of Terai, defines it in terms of terrain features and has geographical connotation.

Madhesh refers to the Terai region specific to Nepal, approximately 25 to 35 km wide broad belt of alluvial and fertile land stretching from Mahakali river in the west to Mechi river in the east between Indian border in the south and Sivalik/Chure Range in the north. Etymologically, Madhesh has been claimed to be derived from word “Madhyadesh” (mid country), or “Matsyadesh” (fish country) whose capital is said to be in Birat Nagar. With the evolution along time, along with its historic values and usages, the word Madhesh has acquired cultural aspects into it that today it represents a way of life and different aspects of life-styles of people living specifically in the region. Whether it is Madheshi-Haat or Madheshi-color; whether it is Madheshi cuisines or Madheshi “boli-byabahar”, the word has integrated different cultural aspects into it, and thus stands with a cultural connotation.

Its (a) historical significance, (b) historical usages, (c) cultural and better representative connotation, (d) representation of specific national locality, and (e) freedom from colonized connotation are some of the reasons why some historians and organizations have been advocating the preference of word “Madhesh”, over the word “Terai”. The word “Terai” lacks all of those characteristics: its historical relevance and usage is modern; it refers to terrain features rather than cultural space and does not represent any aspect of people living there; it is used in India, Bhutan, and Bangladesh in addition to Nepal to refer to regions in those countries as well and thus is not specific to particular country; and its usage was popularized by the state’s policy of what some intellectuals call “internal colonization” and thus carries derogatory colonial connotation. Use of word Terai has been argued to be a symbol of still living in the colonial mindset, resulting from what Dr. Fredrick Gaige referred as a process of “Nepalization” of Madhesh.

Now let’s look at the points on which Chaudhari bases his claim of promoting word “Terai”, and completely deleting word “Madhesh”. The author claims: “the available authoritative records of Nepal, from the time of formation of New Nepal and up to now “Madhesh” word has not been used for Tarai.”

The statement like this reflects either sheer ignorance or blatant passion for falsifying the facts. The truth is almost opposite, from the time of formation of New Nepal there have been literally uncountable usages of “Madhesh”, both authoritative and general. Whether it is authoritative document like Prithvi Narayan Shah’s letter to Bhagavanta Nath (published in Purushartha, December 1949) writing “The boundaries have been extended to the Kankai river in the Madhesh and the Hasabharyakhola and the Tamor river in the hills. ” or it is administrative establishment like “Madhesh Bandobast Adda” or “Madhesh Report Niksari” or “Kumarichok Madhesh Pahila Phant“, there are virtually innumerable usages of Madhesh, which prove how false and baseless above claim is. In fact, in pre-1950 era, word Madhesh was always preferred in authoritative and legal documents as seen from the numerous historical papers.

Further, the author tries hard to throw the existence of Madhesh to some part of India near to Narbada River, Vindhyachal, Prayag, Ambala or Kuruchettra. So what about all those legal codes, regulations, taxation system formulated in the name of “Madhesh” and administrative units like “Madhesh Bandobast Adda” or “Madhesh Report Niksari” or “Kumarichok Madhesh Pahila Phant“ that were part of Nepalese government structure? Were they established by Nepalese Government for those Indian regions and operating in those central Indian territories near Kuruchettra, Prayag or Ambala? Definitely not. They were all for Terai region of Nepal and were operating in Terai region of Nepal. Such claims may give instant popularity by raising controversy, but leads no where as they are produced disregarding all historical facts and evidences available. In terms of analogy, the proposition the author has made in this context is equivalent for one to call himself non-existent and try to change his name at mid-age after using his name for decades, just because one day he finds someone else in other remote village also used to have similar or somewhat resembling name.

Secondly, the author’s claim of Nepal being divided into three regions called Himal, Pahad and Terai as a justification does not qualify on historical basis, as before these words were popularized by school text books with the introduction of new education system, those regions were referred as “Bhot”, “Parbat” and “Madhesh” (see different Birta Confiscation acts), and according to another similar classification they were referred to as “Hyundes”, “Pahardes” and “Madhyadesh or Mades” (Burghart 1984: The Formation of the Concept of Nation State in Nepal, pp. 107, The Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 44, no. 1). And even after popularizing the word Terai by the state, the usage of word Madhesh has been always there in those text books and often appears sidewise in brackets or on its own, synonymously. Therefore, the use of word “Terai” is comparatively newer than “Madhesh”, and was popularized in post 1950 era in the same line of Nepalizing every other aspects including education, language, dress and national symbols, and thus carries a colonial connotation with it. This fact is further justified from the opinions of noted columanist CK Lal, expressed in the following excerpt:

“C.K. Lal asserted that the term ‘Madhesh’ refers to the cultural space where Madhesis reside. He said he preferred the term ‘Madhesi’ to ‘Tarai-Basi’ because the word ‘Tarai’ carries the connotation of internal colonization.” [2]“Nepal Tarai: Context and Possibilities” Conference, Social Science Baha, Mar 10-11 2005, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Further, it should be noted that even though “Terai” was popularized in writing, when it comes to referring people of the region, “Terai-basi” is seldom colloquially used, rather “Madheshi” (and sometimes its derogatory variants) is directly used.

Third, basing on the argument that because a couple of writers like Tony Hegen or Prakash. A. Raj in “A Nepalese Discovers His Country” used word Terai, or some organization for its geological survey used the word “Terai”, the author produces the following claim:

“This amply clarifies that Madhesh is as such a part of Nepal is completely wrong, ill intentioned and also a deception of the real facts as well. Tarai is not Madhesh. Thus, it would be an injustice to call Tarai a Madhesh.”What about looking for Malgudi as mentioned in numerous R.K. Narayan’s books? Mentioning of word “Terai” in a couple of novel-like books a decade ago is not ample evidence for the above high claim made by the author. Also, neither do its finding in current Nepal Parichaya book or some other school texts justifies above, as the author has used them to justify the claim. In Nepal, the curriculum changes with the change of the government. When royal government of King Gyanendra took over, they planned for completely different education system, currently we have tons of correction sheets sent by curriculum development center (texts changed so rapidly that they didn’t even get much time and resource to change the whole book), and possibly when Maoists come into the government in few years, we will be reading completely different version of historical texts. So these contemporary class textbooks should not be produced as historical evidence, for justifying the use of “Terai”.

Lastly, Terai is not derived from or equivalent to Tirhut, and thus historical presence of Tirhut does not form the basis for how the author has promoted word “Terai” depending on it. Further, Tirhut did not cover the whole region of Madhesh as of now, from Mechi to Mahakali, and a large part from current Indian territory was also included in it, thus mapping Tirhut roughly to the area of ancient Hindu kingdom of Mithila. Also, it should be noted that in 1908 four Indian districts of Darbhanga, Muzaffarpur, Saran and Champaran were officially named as Tirhut, as revival of historical presence of Tirhut, and Tirhut is an administrative geographical unit of Bihar state of India.


Madheshis are residents of Madhesh sharing the correlated regional, cultural and lingual space of Madhesh. Tharus, living in Madhesh (both vitri-Madhesh and bahiri-Madhesh as the government divide on its legal documents) and sharing the correlated regional, cultural and lingual space, are Madheshis. Neither all Madheshis are Tharus, nor all Tharus are Madheshis. Tharus have significant settlements in Naini Tal and Champaran area of India as well. Madheshis constitutes dozens of other groups (ethnics/castes/ aborigines/religious groups) in addition to Tharus. Tharu community is one of the aborigine Madheshi communities, said to be inhabiting the region for centuries.

Any claim like Tharus as only inhabitants of the Terai region, as made by the author, is misleading of historical facts, as other aborigine groups like Rajbansi, Jhangad, Satar, Dhimal, Meche, Mushahar, Danuwar, Dhanuk etc. also inhabited the region. Also, at times, the word Tharu was used to collectively represent all people living in Tarai, regardless of their ethnicity or origin, “as status summation for the various peripheral aboriginal groups that occupied Tarai” (Krauskopff: 1990, The Tharu and the Hindu Kingdom of Dang/Nepal, L’Homme, 116, 30(4), pp. 32). Therefore, the claim by the author of sole occupation of Tarai by Tharus is misleading. As far as issues of migration of some of the other ethnic groups is concerned, every community at some point of history are immigrants, and Tharus also immigrated at some point in the history. Ghimire (1992, Forest or Farm? The Politics of Poverty and Land Hunger in Nepal, Oxford University Press) states that Tharu migrated from India in 15th and 16th century, and thus are of Indian-origin as many other communities of Madhesh and Bahun-Chettris of hills including King’s dynasty are. Therefore, it is unfair share of discrimination to attach “Indian-origin” only to certain communities of Madheshis, but not to Bahun-Chettris of hills or Tharus of plains who also migrated from India.

Tharus have been inhabiting Madhesh, intermingled with other different Madheshi ethnic groups in geographical and cultural spaces as inseparable communities, and they have been gloriously and proudly living together for centuries, facing the same problems.


From above discussions, arguments and evidences, following points can be noted as summary:

  1. Madhesh and Terai refer to the same geographical region, in the present context of Nepal. However, Terai region is also found in India, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and ‘Terai’ refers to their respective regions when used in their contexts.
  2. Madhesh and Terai, both have been in use indiscriminately and synonymously in general context, in present day Nepal.
  3. Madhesh includes the connotation of identity and culture of people living in the region, whereas Terai refers to geographical feature or terrain characteristics of the region.
  4. Terai, popularized by enforcing the policy of “Nepalization” and lingual-cleansing process carries the connotation of “internal colonization”.
  5. Madheshis are residents of Madhesh sharing the correlated regional, cultural and lingual space.
  6. Tharu community living in the same region of Terai of Nepal or Madhesh, and sharing the regional, cultural and lingual space, is a subset of Madheshi community.


[1] (“say Madhesh, not Terai”)

[2] (“preferred the term ‘Madhesi’ to ‘Tarai-Basi’ because the word ‘Tarai’ carries the connotation of internal colonization”)

(Note: The author of the essay does not recommend any preference, but the essay was meant for clearing the confusions raised by the aforementioned article.)



Entry filed under: Articles.


16 Comments Add your own

  • 1. SURENDRA MADHESHI  |  March 20, 2007 at 6:43 am

    “This insight, which expresses itself by what is called Imagination, is a very high sort of seeing”
    Hello my dear friends,
    It’s a great pleasure on my behalf to announce the successful launch of “All India Madhesi Student Association”.
    Ah now its first ever time in my life that m so much energized even after doing such a laborious job. Energized to see rising madhesis, to see madhesis sharing equal status, living with dignity and I cant stop listing……….
    Yes am talking about upliftment of madhesis community with our main aim of providing every madhesi with “UDISE”. AIMSA is first ever association of its kind which is fighting for madhesis right at its root level. Students are considered building blocks of the society and provides support from within , without any selfishness.
    So come on our young, brave hearted and power boosted young generation to show a dream come true , to show our madhesh rising , to secure a better place in the community.
    This is a humble request from me and my community to all madhesi students to go through our mission’s information brochure and give a thought to its contents. I will be highly thankful to all of you for your support , cooperation and participation in this mission.
    ” Lack of will power has caused more failure
    Than lack of intelligence or ability.”

    Our information brochure is available on web. You can connect to us at: , .
    Your views and ideas will be highly appreciated.

    “We are made wise not by the recollection of our past, but by the responsibility for our future”

    With best regards,


    E mail at:
    Mobile : +91-9886015017
    Tele : +91-820429780

  • 2. Bangladesh  |  July 6, 2007 at 10:24 pm

    That was pretty neatly written. Its such a mess when relating to Bangladesh, isnt it ? Check out what I found out about Bangladesh Government Sites!.

  • 3. MAHESHWAR cHAUDHARY  |  June 5, 2008 at 11:13 am


    United Tharu National Front Nepal (UTNFN), an umbrella organisation of 15 Tharu organizations, today demanded that the government make an amendment to the interim constitution, which has mentioned all districts in the plains as “Madhes” .
    Article 21 of the constitution mentions 20 districts lying in the plains a Madhes. The UTNFN said it is opposed to this classification because it does not reflect the identity of the Tharu Community.
    The Interim Constitution has categorized even the Tharus, who are indigenous community for the Terai, this region has been known as the “Trerai” for long, Yogendra Tharu, the UTNFN , said.
    Surendra Pandey , a leader of the CPN-UML and member of the government team that held talks with the UTNFN , said that both the sides had agreed to discuss the issue with the speaker, government talks team, UTFN and chief whips of the eight parties in the next meet. Minister for peace and reconstruction Ram chandra Poudel has led the government team.
    Yogendra tharu said that even the first amendment of the constitution has used the term Madhes. An appropriate name should be given to 20 district in the plains only after consultation with all the communities, including the Tharus, he said.
    The Himalayan Thursday, September 13,2007

  • 4. Roshan kumar jha  |  May 22, 2009 at 10:20 am

    Madhesh refers to the Terai region specific to Nepal, approximately 25 to 35 km wide broad belt of alluvial and fertile land stretching from Mahakali river in the west to Mechi river in the east between Indian border in the south and Sivalik/Chure Range in the north. Etymologically, Madhesh has been claimed to be derived from word “Madhyadesh” (mid country), or “Matsyadesh” (fish country) whose capital is said to be in Birat Nagar. With the evolution along time, along with its historic values and usages, the word Madhesh has acquired cultural aspects into it that today it represents a way of life and different aspects of life-styles of people living specifically in the region. Whether it is Madheshi-Haat or Madheshi-color; whether it is Madheshi cuisines or Madheshi “boli-byabahar”, the word has integrated different cultural aspects into it, and thus stands with a cultural connotation.

    Its (a) historical significance, (b) historical usages, (c) cultural and better representative connotation, (d) representation of specific national locality, and (e) freedom from colonized connotation are some of the reasons why some historians and organizations have been advocating the preference of word “Madhesh”, over the word “Terai”.

  • 5. Roshan kumar jha, Gaur,ksl  |  May 22, 2009 at 10:27 am

    We madhesi people are the actual habitant of Nepal. Then why we always discriminate from so called pahadiyas people. we should have to again revolt against them. The tharus are the habitants of Thar desert of rajsthan state india. and the Ranas and shas (late royal family ) are the actual habitants of Chitauragadh Rajsthan India. But we Madhesi people are the real habitants of Madhesh. We have long history from era of Dwapar yuga (king janak). so we should have to revolt against them

  • 6. Roshan kumar jha, Gaur,ksl  |  May 22, 2009 at 10:31 am

    O, you tharu people.
    Dont be aggressive. you all are inhabitants of Rajsthan India. you all are not the original habitants of nepal.we all know you all are the weapon for Nepali congress,emale and chure please stop your revolt against the word madhesh.other wise you will feel so regret in the further days to come.

  • 7. Roshan kumar jha, Gaur,ksl  |  May 22, 2009 at 10:46 am

    My name is Roshan kumar jha
    Birganj parsa and rautahat Gaur
    Now Kathmandu school of law, Bhaktapur Nepal
    Mobile no 9745021697.
    the aggressive people are strictly probihited to call me.

  • 8. Anjuman  |  August 8, 2009 at 12:26 pm

    Eey so called madhesis,who the tharus are?if you dont know dont make any kind of fuss.on which basis you are claiming to be the original habitate of terai as well as nepal?all u madhesis are the bhagauda of india and now you are going to collapse you n the entire land of terai to india again.and dont make tharus aggressive.coz they are peacelover and live in peace n harmony.its warning

  • 9. yuyen,bahrain  |  August 30, 2009 at 6:33 pm

    wat the hell is this rashan jha ?? LOL
    rediculous,baseless and semi wit thinking. I think he’s gonna mad.
    if somebody got him just take him to the mental hospital. I gotta an adress for people like him-it’s patal mental hospital. PLzz somebody help the mentally disordered person like roshan jha.
    without curing people like him we can’t make new nepal . com’n
    bodies get him and take as soon as possible there.

  • 10. yuyen,bahrain  |  August 30, 2009 at 7:23 pm

    Vivaswan Kumar(the intepreter),
    Don’t think u’ve done greate job there by interpreting the above mentioned history in your own way. u wants to be a analyzer just try to follow the fact not the imotions.
    Don’t ever think if somebody is dominated then all thing should be named by him/her. think rationally ok? if u want to be a “big” just try to write big-i mean the facts.
    how u dare to call tharus madesi ?, what i think either u must be a half-wit writter or a frustrated madhesi.
    if u think u knows true to analyse facts honestly. before concluding any point make sure the history writter’s tendencies, i got one witter wrote all madhesi are coward do u accept it-so somewhere history speaks writter’ intention or tendencies-u got what i mean?

    but truth is truth and in coming future i wanna c u as a great writter just try to write the truth not others intetion or aggresions ok?
    I, thousand precent defence your madhesi word with tharus
    FOR ALL-whatever the writter wants to convey through his nasty words- I wanna clear-THE THARUS ARE NOT MADHESI RATHER THEY ARE ABORIGINES OF LOWLAND-TERAI

  • 11. color brochure printing los Angeles  |  August 19, 2010 at 6:33 am

    well it seems to be a good update. Whatever happens now, I think it will be alright.

  • 12. Roshan kumar jha  |  January 3, 2011 at 11:17 am

    Youth frustration

    The political instability of Nepal has directed most of the youths towards frustration and disappointment in various fields. In such a situation, creating a niche for themselves with tranquility, patience and buoyancy are the biggest challenges for every Nepali youth. Political problems, youth frustration, education system, bad governance, corruption, violence etc etc is happening in our country today.But nobody is sincere on this issue. I think political interference in the name of student unions should be banned in the country as they work only for their mother parties rather than the welfare of general students. I also think there should be a certain code of conduct for political leaders when it comes to them making public speeches. Thousands of youths are forced to fly abroad due to political uncertainty and lack of opportunities in the country. Students like me who want to stay and serve the country are flying abroad due to Political problems, youth frustration, education system, bad governance, corruption; violence Political leaders should rather concentrate on the issue of Youth rather than spreading frustration among the students with their unwanted speeches.
    Roshan kumar jha
    LL.B 3rd year
    Kathmandu school of Law, Bhaktapur

  • 13. Ravishankas mandal  |  February 10, 2012 at 1:54 am

    Jay madhesh ham se koi madhesh nai chinsakta.

  • 14. Rakesh Chaudhary  |  June 1, 2012 at 11:29 am

    Jai tharuwan. I think the writer has gone insane and must be sent to mental hospital i.e patan. How dare he call tharus as madhesis. Tharus are not madhesis they are the ‘natives’ of the terai and basically are of pre-mongoloid origin. Tharus can be distinguised from madisey in terms of culture, face structure as some has flat nose which basically shows that they are different from madesi and are forest people. Due to immigrants like u all madesi people who have migrated from india and living in our land , our culture is slowly vanishing and thats y some cultural things is same as of u people. It is because of you people we are being called madises but the fact is that you people are taking things for granted just because we have kept quiet. We tharuwan people cannot let you madesis people let rule over and torture us after getting the state because we know your intentions. As you know tharus are simple and kind but once you try to use and mislead them, they will get angry and thats what they are doing nowadays, asking for their rights. And we will continue our andolan untill and unless we achieve our state. So my dear writer, whatever you have written is all false and next time plz write actual facts. Plz dont let tharuwan identity vanish as it is in my nature to get angry if my identity is lost. Not only me but whoever i.e tharu people if they read ur article they will get angry for sure? So dont ever let ones identity be lost like the red indians in U.S.A. Its about our native land, people, culture where we love to be lived, entertain and protect it from foreigners. Am i right? So dont give false sayings and facts about our people. Plz dont do it again and think twice, thrice okkkkkk before writing any false statement. JAI THARUWAN, JAI NEPAL

  • 15. BritishNepali  |  December 29, 2013 at 6:26 am

    The Tharu are the native people of the Terai. These ‘Madhesi’ people are illegal immigrants from Bihar in India they speak immigrant languages. Dalits, Bahuns, Chetris are NOT native Nepali they are illegal invader immigrants from India and of Indo-Aryan race. Only Tharu in the Terai and the Newar,Gurung, Magar, Rai, Limbu, Tamangs and Sherpa are REAL NATIVE NEPALI’S of the Mongoloid race. All the Indo-Aryans are just pretenders and frauds.who migrated from India. The ‘Madhesi’ are the same as the ‘Rohinga’ (aka illegal Bengali’s) in Burma. ‘Madhesi’ sided with the British East India company in the Anglo-Nepal war of 1812.
    I live in the UK and people here and all over the West know the real Nepali’s like the Gurkhas, Tenzing Norgay and the Sherpas and world famous fashion designer Prabal Gurung. If a ‘Madhesi’ claimed he was from Nepal he would be laughed at as some crazy Indian just like they laugh at Bahuns and Chetris who claim they are native Nepali’s.
    The World is not buying what your selling but keep trying like your ‘Rohinga’ brothers you have much in common.

    Tharu be strong and don’t let these dhoti invaders who are illegally squatting on YOUR LAND push you around!

  • 16. Ratan (@RatanKarna)  |  February 18, 2018 at 3:30 am

    This article is all rubbish. picking up facts that support writer’s idea. The term “madhesh” has been politicised widely in a short period of recent time. This is not “finding the identity of people living in Terai” rather imposing one over them. These things are done by literates who just want to play it to the dirtiest extent for political benefits.

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