March 31, 2009 at 4:30 pm 10 comments


-Vivaswan Kumar


Historians agree that ‘Madhesh’ is a morphological derivative of Madhyadesh (Sanskrit, the Middle Country) or Majjhimadesh (Pali: the Middle Country) and means the same-the Middle Country.

The region of Madhyadesh has been well defined in ancient texts, for example Manu defines Madhyadesh region as vast plains between Himalaya and Vindhya mountains and to the east of the river Vinasana (invisible Saraswati) and to the west of Prayag.

Buddhist texts calls this ‘Middle Country’ Majjhimadesh (in Pali) and defines the region in canonical texts Vinaya Pitaka as extended “in the east to the town of Kajangala, beyond which was Mahasala; on the south-east to the river Salalavati; on the south west to the town of Satakannika; on the west to the brahmin village of Thuna; on the north to the Usiraddhaja Mountain.” At the time of Buddha, the eastern limit of the Middle Country had extended nearly 400 miles eastward of Prayaga which was its eastern most point in Manu’s time.  According to Pali canon, the Majjhimadesh was “three hundred yojanas in length, two hundred and fifty in breadth, and nine hundred in circumference” . It contained fourteen of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (Kasi, Kosala, Anga, Magadha, Vajji, Malla, Cetiya, Vamsa, Kuru, Pañcala, Maccha, Surasena, Assaka, Avanti).

Upon the arrival of Mughals from the Mid East, they called the vast plains of the Middle Country as ‘Terai’, a word derived from Persian (तराई / ترائی ‘wetland’ from تر  ‘wet’ ), meaning “moist land” (Encyclopedia Britannica). The subsequent British missionaries and the East India Company also refer this region with this name or its variants. At this time, Madhesh was ruled by Sen and other kings as suzerainty states and paid taxes to Nawabs and the East India Company.

With the state expansion initiated by of Gurkha ruler Prithvi Narayan Shah in the late 17th century, Gurkhas got hold of many parts of the Madhesh and took many from Nawabs and the East India Company by paying tax or through treaties. At the time of Prithvi Narayan Shah, Nepal extended well into the east up to Kankai river as Prithvi Narayan Shah’s letter to Bhagavanta Nath says: “…The boundaries have been extended to the Kankai river in the Madhesh and the Hasabharyakhola and the Tamor river in the hills.” And in the west, once the Nepal was extended up to Sutluj River including Kumaon and Garhwal. On the annexed land of Madhesh, Gurkhas continued to levy tax and started “land management” by establishing administrative units like “Madhesh Bandobast Adda”, “Kumarichok Madhesh Pahila Phat”, “Madhesh Report Niksari” throughout the Madhesh, from east to the west as far as Garhwal.  (For example, Royal orders issued in June 1805 states that Dhaukal Khatri, Surabir Khatri, and Ranabir Khatri were appointed Subbas of one-third of the Madhesh, Hill, and Bhot territories of Garhwal replacing Ranabir Basnet.).  It shows that even at this time, the whole Terai region, from east to west, even up to Garhwal, was known as Madhesh. Therefore, the whole Terai is located in Madhesh.

The part of Madhesh present today in Nepal is a result of memorandum of 1816 and treaty of 1860 with the East India Company. Through the memorandum of December 8, 1816, the Company government handed the region between west of Koshi and east to Rapti river to Nepal instead of paying two hundred thousands rupees per year as agreed previously on Gurkhas’ request for supporting living cost of their employees. The region west of Rapti and east of Mahakali came through the treaty of 1960 as an reward to Gurkhas for their support to the East India Company for suppressing Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 to 1859 and is also called Naya Muluk (New Region).


There are different theories on the origins and history of Tharus. The most popular ones are taken into account in this article.

Buddha/ Sakya and Kolya Theory

This theory was mostly popularised by Tej Narayan Panjiyar (Faceless in History, 1993), himself a Tharu, and one of most influential Tharus, Ramanand Prasad Singh (The Real Story of the Tharus, 1993). The theory claims that Tharus are descendants of Buddha/Shakya and Kolyas. Whatever the substance be in this theory, it has become the ‘little red book’ for current Tharu politicians and revolutionaries and this is the theory based upon which few Tharus leaders are involved in anti-Madhesh activities, denying Tharus to be called Madheshi. Alas! Rather than basing their claims on hearsay, had they read the same documents fully.  In the same document ‘The Real Story of the Tharus’, Ramanand Singh writes, “[Tharus] …are the remnants of the Sakya’s and Kolya’s, the two branches of the descendants of Okaka and Okamukha, the kings of Banaras.”  So if Tharus are descendants of Sakya’s and Kolyas, Okaka and Okamukha – the kings of Banaras, how can Tharus avoid the identity of being Madhyadeshi or Majjhimadeshi as Banaras was located in the very heart of Madhyadesh/ Majjhimadesh? Second, how can Tharus claim to be ‘sons of Buddha’, and yet deny being Madheshi, as Buddha was born nowhere but in Majjhimadesh and is one of the greatest Madheshis of all time? All the Buddist Pali Canon text is evidence of this, for example it contains:

Next he made the observation concerning the place. “The continent of India is large,” thought he, “being ten thousand leagues around. In which of its countries are the Buddhas born?” Thus he decided on the Middle Country (Majjhimadesa) . It is three hundred leagues in length, two hundred and fifty in breadth, and nine hundred in circumference. In this country are born The Buddhas, the Private Buddhas, the Chief Disciples, the Eighty Great Disciples, the Universal Monarch, and other eminent ones, magnates of the warrior caste, of the Brahman caste, and the wealthy householders. And in it is this city called Kapilavatthu, ” thought he, and concluded that there he ought to be born.

(from Warren‘s translation of The Birth of Buddha in ‘Buddhism in Translation’ ,1896)

So there is not much choice: if Tharus are descendant of Buddha or Sakyas and Kolyas, all of whom belonged to Majjhimadesh/ Madhyadesh, they are Madheshi.

Similarly, many authors claim Tharus ancestry even to the Mauryas and Emperor Ashoka (“The Return of the Mauryas” and “The Great Sons of the Tharus: Sakyamuni Buddha and Emperor Asoka” by Subodh Kumar Singh; “The Real Story of the Tharus”, Ramanand Prasad Singh). Ramanand Prasad Singh in ‘The Real Story of the Tharus’ emphasizes “…Champaran as the land of the Tharus from which tribe issued Ashoka.” As it is well known Maurya Empire included the Middle Country, and Chaparan is in Majjhimadesh (that included all fourteen out of sixteen Mahajanapadas) . So by this account as well, Tharus are Madheshi.


Rajputana Legend

This is the traditional view and is most celebrated among Tharus and is supported by many scholars as well. Encyclopedia Britannica writes:  “The five higher clans among them [Tharus], which constitute about 80 percent of the population, claim to be of royal origin in Rajasthan.” The theory can be described in the words of Ishwar Baral (The Tharu Community And Their Culture, 1966) as:

“There is a story about the origin of the Tharu community, when the Muslims invaded Chitor (Rajputana) in the 12th century, the Rajputs sent their woman to the hilly regions in the north for safety. These women waited long for their men, but in vain. They then accepted as their husbands their own servants, as well as local low caste people. Children born of such union came to be known as Tharus. Accordingly, Tharu women have greater authority inside the home, and the Tharus still call their wives ”Rani” (queen).”

Regmi Research Series (Year 2, No. 1, 1970) documents the view of the famous historian Babu Ram Acharya as:  “According to an ancient custom, which is still prevalent in Rajputana, the Tharus cut off their toe and put tika on the head of their King with the blood.. Babu Ram Acharya therefore holds that the Tharus were originally Kshatriyas and came from Rajputana.”  This view is supported by many other scholars including Ghimire (1992, Forest or Farm? The Politics of Poverty and Land Hunger in Nepal, Oxford University Press). Some even attribute the etymology of ‘Tharu’ to come from Thar Desert, also located in Rajputana (Rajasthan).

Now, Majjhimadesh does include this region (as fourteen out of the sixteen Mahajanapadas belonged to it) and thus according to this theory also, Tharus are from the Majjhimadesh and are Madheshi.


Whichever theory may be true about their origins, Tharus have been living in Madhesh at least for several centuries; therefore based on their residence, they are Madheshi. It should be noted that this inclusion is able to cover Tharus living in Naini Tal, Kheri and Gonda districts of Uttar Pradesh and Champaran district of Bihar in India as well, which were in Madhyadesh.

Tharus do not speak a common language, but speak one of the Madhyadeshiya language-Maithili, Bhojpuri, Hindi and Awadhi or closer to them (“Many Tongues, One People: The Making of Tharu Identity in Nepal”, Arjun Guneratne; “The Anthropology of the Tharus”, Gisèle Krauskopff). Gisèle Krauskopff writes: “All the Tharu minorities speak Indo-European languages related to the North Indian ones. Despite many regional sub-variations, we can draw three main linguistic areas: Dangaura and Chitwanya Tharu dialects are different but exhibit Bhojpuri influence, Rana is closer to Hindi and Koshila to Maithili. Finally, the related Rajbamsis speak a form of Bengali.” Therefore, as Tharus speak one of the Madhyadeshiya language or a language close to it, they are Madheshi.

Tharus share many of the cultural practices with other communities in the Madhesh.  Holi, Jitiya Pawani, Maghi, worship of village deity (Bhuinyar), Deepavali and culture of wall painting and many rituals upon birth and deaths are just to name a few. Noting the similarity, Encyclopedia Britannica also writes: “They [Tharus] speak a language of the Indo-Aryan subgroup of the Indo-Iranian group of the Indo-European family, and they are largely Indian in culture.” This further justifies the Madhyadeshiya identity of Tharus.

Therefore, as Tharus have been residing in Madhyadesh, as they speak one of the Madhyadeshiya language and practice Madhyadeshiya culture, they are Madheshi.



Based on all evidences above regarding origin, history, residence, language and culture, Tharus are Madheshi

(a)        as they originated from Madhyadesh or Majjhimadesh (Madhesh)

(b)        as they have been living in Madhyadesh or Majjhimadesh (Madhesh)

(c)        as they speak one of Madhyadeshiya language or a dialect closer to it

(d)        as they practice Madhyadeshiya culture common with other Madheshi communities

We are living in a century where we are able to trace the existence of even tiny particles that existed at the origin of time; so a couple of leaders for political bargain cannot falsify the whole history that has massive footprints just by giving some sensational one-liners in media bent for propaganda. Now just because the Khas ruling class has degenerated the meaning of Madheshi and its variants to essentially mean ‘second-class citizen, niggers, the black ones, Indian, the dead jackal etc.” does not mean that Tharus should deny accepting the reality and choose to be called something else. Wouldn’t it be a cowardly act of Tharus to run away from the reality of being Madheshi just for that sake? Therefore, Tharus should rather fight to restore the dignity of their Madheshi identity.


Entry filed under: Uncategorized.

WHOLE TARAI BELONGS TO MADHESH: HISTORICAL FACTS Janakpur – a kingdom of “Mithila Naresh”

10 Comments Add your own

  • 1. Niranjan Tharu  |  May 2, 2009 at 3:46 pm

    Kumar ji,
    The artical is beautiful in its structure and make up. It seems You might have worked hard to go through lot of books. Here are some comments.
    Gunaratne is a sociologist- writes what he sees at present. He is not historian, to whom you have referenced for your own drawn history of Tharu. There is a langauge displacement of Tharus to which Nepal government has never cared dear ! It means we are socially displaced people by the newly immigrants- displacement of our own culture, our own langauge, our daily life. How can you say we speak bhojpuri, Abadhi or Maithali not Tharu. You are completely biased towards so called Madhesis.
    But other Tharu authors too are not historian, but they are Tharu my friend who are themselves history- a wise man has told that history is of two types- Written and Vocal. You people never wrote it in your history and we people still carry on spoken words. You speak based on your own history -a monotone.
    We were the the prime inhabitants of northern Indian plate to where people from west and centre of this plate came pushing us. Our living is proved by the tharus of Nainital and so on. And you came up encroaching our soil, jungle, water and so on. Ask your grandfathers that we were the witnesses (Sarjamin) for their Nepali citizenships half 2 or 3 decades ago and backwards. And you are still unsatisfied trying to build a new regime- Madhes, another grand design for mass displacement, over our head.

    We are creating a history dear !!, Watch it.

  • 2. Roshan kumar jha gaur Rautahat,ksl,llb1st year  |  May 26, 2009 at 5:40 am

    The Madhesh is also known as the Terrai in Nepal and it is located in the Southern district of Nepal.

    Individuals living in the Madhesh in Nepal are commonly known as the Madhesi people. Estimates suggest that the Madhesi people constitute between 35 and 50% of the overall population of Nepal and that the actual Madhesh area itself constitutes nearly 20% of the land space in Nepal.

    Madhesh is commonly believed to have been the Kingdom of the legendary King Janak and as such, the Madhesi people are believed to be part of the oldest culture in Nepal.

    There is considerable condemnation aimed at the Nepal government that they have done very little to protect both the Madhesi people and the Madhesi culture. It is argued by the government and the King of Nepal that Nepal should consist of just ‘one’ people and hence, minority groups are not afforded any protection.

    In response to this, the Madhesi people formed the Madhesi Janadhikar Forum (MJF) (also known as Madhesi Peoples’ Rights Forum) demanding both autonomy and self-determination for its people.

    Unfortunately, the use of weapons and violence to try and secure the demands made by the Madhesi Janadhikar Forum in Nepal has resulted in a growing belief that the Madhesi Janadhikar Forum are nothing more than one of many other terrorist groups in Nepal.
    Examples of some of the complains levelled against the Madhesi Janadhikar Forum in Nepal are that members of the Madhesi Janadhikar Forum are insisting that any ‘hill’ people are expelled from the flat regions of the Madhesi terrain. They have also been accused of appalling acts of violence against unidentified groups – believed to consist primarily of Maoist activists.
    The truth to these accusations surrounding the Madhesi Janadhikar Forum in Nepal however, is not always clear cut and the allegations may only stem from the behaviour of a minority within the Madhesi Janadhikar Forum and hence not be supported by the broader community.

    Protests in the earlier part of March 2007 saw the deaths of almost 38 members of the Madhesi Janadhikar Forum and curfews to help control the violence were only recently lifted.
    Roshan kumar jha
    Rautahat, Brahampuri7 Rautahat, Gaur, Nepal
    Presently: Kathmandu school of law
    L.L.B 1st year

  • 3. jerry serafica  |  June 27, 2009 at 10:37 am

    the tharus people are quite intresting, i wanna see how they look like now a days, means the new generation of tharus. if u can post some photos of them. i will be highly appreciate.

  • 4. madhesi  |  June 28, 2009 at 1:22 am


    This VDO shows thr Tharu youth change.

  • 5. rajesh  |  June 28, 2009 at 11:12 am

    it’s not a question of being “more” madhesi or “less” madhesi…. it’s only that either you’re madhesi … or you’re the others!
    thank you

  • 6. rajesh  |  June 28, 2009 at 11:12 am

    it’s not the question of being “more” madhesi or “less” madhesi…. it’s only that either you’re madhesi … or you’re the others!
    thank you

  • 7. Niranjan Tharu  |  November 15, 2009 at 8:32 pm

    I don’t know what meaning the photo carries if it is posted exactly in this webpage. I mean hellow, Internet has got everything.

  • 8. Niranjan Tharu  |  November 15, 2009 at 8:33 pm

    The lagging development in this region can be well argued due to the barbarism on Tharus.

  • 9. manish tharu  |  May 31, 2010 at 7:33 pm

    hey dude”sss…… its just a waste of a time talkin about what u were n ur ancestors was… i guess history is always 99% false coz written by winners but still cant be negleted. so let the history be on its own. instead we gotta prove our generousity talkin’ as a one n thats humanity. as ryt now our humanity seems to get stuck”” and heading to its end ryt dudes?????????


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People Celebrating faguwa (Holi), with the fun of music, quite popular among Terai people. Holi is celebrated each year on the eve of falgun purnima Faguwa (Holi) Celebration

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