Gaur Massacre: Issues, Contradictions and Conundrums Galore

March 30, 2007 at 2:14 pm 9 comments

Gaur Massacre: Issues, Contradictions and Conundrums Galore

By M.R. Josse

Understandably, the horrendous slaughter last Wednesday of 29 persons in Gaur by lathis, strangulation, and gunshot wounds, among other means, has been universally and very rightly condemned both at home and abroad. While the official version of that terrible afternoon’s tryst with mass murder will hopefully be brought before all at the earliest, it has in the interregnum raised a welter of knotty issues besides birthed a bunch of political conundrums and contradictions.

Spate of Theories

Already, of course, it has triggered a spate of conspiracy theories and eye-witness versions with the very credible likelihood that the grim casualty toll from the madness of that inauspicious spring day, epitomized by clashes between the activists of the Madeshi Janaadhikar Forum (MJF) and the Maoist-affiliated Madeshi Mukti Morcha (MMM), could be much higher than 29.

At the time of writing there is still some ambiguity about whether the government announced 4-member judicial probe commission headed by Patan Appellate Court justice Hari Prasad Ghimere has now been scrubbed or not, in the face of Maoist objection that it was not consulted prior to its constitution, to be replaced by a ‘political’ one endorsed by the Maoists.

Be that as it may, there can be no gainsaying that any enquiry commission that is not independent, and perceived by all to be so, will hardly contribute either to public enlightenment, probity or to the cause of justice.

In fact, if that cardinal consideration is thrown to the winds it could very well provoke even greater calamities in the Terai and elsewhere in the future.

Given the enormous stakes for all in successfully concluding free and fair Constituent Assembly (CA) polls in a climate totally sans fear, a resurgence of unrest in the Terai, especially if it assumes the violent form that it sadly did in Gaur, would be most unfortunate for the nation, as a whole.

Inevitably, a blame game has begun with the Maoists and their allies charging all manner of grave misdemeanors by domestic “regressive” forces – read the Palace – buttressed by Indian Hindu extremists, not to mention the by-now familiar “reactionary” international forces inimical to the Maoists.

While repetitive, reflexive condemnation of such a purported assortment has, by now, created a whopping credibility gap in the non-partisan mind, that does not by any stretch of imagination explain why or how the MMM decided to organize their own political meeting which the MJF had days earlier publicized their intention to do so, on the same day, at the same time, at the same venue!

Not forgetting ferocious attacks by Maoist activists on MJF meetings in the recent past across the Terai – and those against other political rallies elsewhere – it is hardly surprising that, this time around, the MJF came fully prepared to face any form of confrontation from Maoist cadres. It is, of course, entirely on the cards that such preparation involved using the services or talents of professional goons, both of the local as well as imported variety from across the border.

Sowing and Reaping

An even more basic question that has been raised by the gory Gaur Slaughter is this: why should the MJF alone be expected to play by the rules of the parliamentary game governing democratic protest when other groupings – including those that have openly used weapons and militias for more than a decade for the fulfillment of their political objectives – have, as one commentator put it, “given a stamp of legitimacy for maintaining armed gangs to carry out law and order needs bypassing the legal security system”?

Besides, it might be entirely salutary to remind ourselves that importing political assets, of one kind or another, from India has for long been a favorite sport of Nepalese political parties, both of the legitimate or underground sorts. Why, then, should one be unduly surprised if it appears that the MJF seem to have taken recourse to such a familiar political remedy for redressing perceived grievances?

As it is, none should forget the generous contribution made towards the absolutely untenable state of law and order in the land today – a condition that can only be described as a state of political mayhem – by the devil-may-care pursuit of the politics of ethnic divisions, autonomy, self-determination, communalism and the like.

In other words, why should one, in those particular circumstances, have been taken aback by Gaur? After all, as the wise old adage goes, “as you sow, ye are like to reap.” Also, don’t the worldy-wise know from sheer experience that they that have sown the wind are likely to reap the whirlwind?

Banning and All That

Yet another issue that has come to the fore in the heated climate of confrontation, verbal and physical, between the Maoists and various Madeshi groups including the MJF, is the Maoist leadership’s propensity to dismiss or demean the latter by charging them as being not merely non-political, but, in fact, led by criminals and smugglers.

While it is conventional wisdom that, apart from all else, such allegations have only added fuel to the fire of Madeshi discontent, many will question whether the Maoists have the proper moral or legal credentials to level such criticism. For many, it would seem akin to the pot calling the kettle black.

Similarly, the Maoist proposal that the MJF be banned – now mercifully pushed under the carpet – is not only likely to further aggravate the situation but indeed contradicts all the heady rhetoric about a “new Nepal” and an “inclusive” polity. Truth be told, it is far closer to the ethos of the authoritarian, party-less Panchayat order of yesteryear than to a liberal, multi-party democracy befitting the 21st century!

Incidentally, reports on the Kathmandu grapevine have it that insistence on such a non-democratic measure was dropped only when the wizards or gurus of Lainchaur discreetly ruled against it on grounds that it would permanently transform the Terai protest movement into an outright communal one.

No less contradictory is the gaping chasm between Maoist claims to be a new moral force in Nepali politics and their recent behaviour in the interim parliament. Thus, their rowdy, unruly disruption of the business of the House the other day, in the aftermath or shadow of Gaur, is in stark variance with their commitment to pursuing political goals through non-violent parliamentary means.

Some time earlier, as most will recall, a Maoist MP created a furore by claiming to be armed and then proceeding to spew forth threats to all and sundry.

(Disturbing the business of parliament is also redolent of the behaviour of the UML which boycotted the House of Representatives for 56 days at a stretch when the NC was ruling the roost with a parliamentary majority several years ago. As we know, it did nothing to boost the image of the UML as a regular democratic party prepared to sit out its term in the opposition.)

It would be remiss not to mention that, in moves very close to banning the MJF, the administration has recently taken a series of measures to prohibit political activities, ostensibly in the interest of maintaining law and order. Thus, apart from enforcing a four-day ban in Jhapa, Morang, Sunsari, Siraha and Saptari districts, defied by the MJF at various locales, the administration imposed a fresh three-day restriction in Saptari.

In Rajbiraj, the district headquarters, that resulted in 12 cadres being injured when police intervened on 26 March at a rally and corner meeting by the MJF resulting in 15 arrests. According to reports, police fired seven rounds of teargas when protesters attempted to resume corner meetings.

It hardly requires a fevered imagination to assume that such prohibitory orders, which by themselves are routine law and order maintenance instruments in most societies, may have been interpreted by the MJF as being, in essence, directed against them.

If so it would have done nothing to cool heated tempers in the Terai. More long-term, it would not have really helped to create conditions propitious for a negotiated settlement of perceived grievances, real or imagined.

At this juncture, it should be in order to remind ourselves of what led the MJF to launch their protest movement, or revolt. As Dr. Mathura Prasad Shrestha a noted human rights advocate who visited Gaur in the aftermath of the massacre put it:

“First, the SPA gave up its stance on federalism in the interim constitution. Second, it gave up its stance on proportional representation. Third, it raised the issue of public opinion and later it gave it up. All this disappointed the Madeshis and the other ethnic groups in the hill and mountain” (areas). (Kathmandu Post interview, 26 March.)

Conundrums

As mentioned at the outset, the post-Gaur situation is suffused with some puzzles or conundrums. One that immediately strikes the mind is the eerie silence that the Indian government and its minnows have maintained thus far.

To be noted is that there has not only not been any high level policy statement emanating from the gnomes of South Block on the implications of Gaur, one way or another, but also that, oddly enough, it does not seem to have aroused the interest of the perennially interfering Indian media. This is a riddle of the first order, not least against the backdrop of credible, widespread reports of the import of Indian goons specializing in the politics of violence and thuggery.

Indeed, although months ago, Indian Foreign Minister Pranab Mukherjee publicly expressed the hope that the problems of the Madeshis would be judiciously attended to, there is nothing now except unnerving stillness. That, incidentally, includes a stony silence on how it views the call from many quarters, including that by Maoists, for controlling the porous Nepal-India border (a suggestion that was made, time and time again in the past, including that during the Maoist insurgency itself.)

Only slightly less enigmatic is the government’s prompt determination that Indian “criminal elements” had participated in the Gaur carnage when report after report, including those in our own media, have charged that other “military-trained” elements from across the border, or even beyond, might have been involved.

Will the promised ‘political’ enquiry throw light on those unknowns, among other things? Likewise, will the ordinary citizen ever learn whether, as widely thought, INGOs did indeed plow huge amounts of cold, hard cash to fuel the MJF and other sectarian protest movements?

Finally, we have the prompt reaction from the American Embassy in the form of a statement dated 23 March. Though brief, it speaks volumes. Thus, apart from the anodyne condemnation of violence and a call to the government to punish all perpetrators concerned and this not selectively, it lashes out at the en-mass walkout by Maoists’ PLA from cantonments which it says has demonstrated the Maoists’ disdain for the commitments made to the peace process.

Apart from there being no condemnation of the MJF, the Embassy statement makes this eloquent point: “If unity and inclusiveness are not promoted, further bloodshed may result and Nepal’s peace process could be imperiled.” It also calls on the government to initiate transparent and effective dialogue with indigenous and ethnic groups to address their grievances.

source::http://newsblaze.com/story/20070329063823nnnn.nb/newsblaze/OPINIONS/Opinions.html

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Entry filed under: Articles.

MADHESH PEACE UNIVERSITY Announced Madhesi Movement:Blessing in disguise?

9 Comments Add your own

  • 1. cb  |  March 30, 2007 at 7:34 pm

    I’d really REALLY like to be taken off your mailing list.

  • 2. Ashutosh Shrivastav  |  March 30, 2007 at 10:52 pm

    Madheshis– wherever you are–this is the urgency of time for us to be united and let madhesh fight for justice. No more tolerance. We Madheshis honor the guests, even the uninvited ones, but we cannot tolerate their excesses. This is my sincere request “please be united”, unless we will be aliens one day. We have endured enough, not anymore. We comprise more then 50% and more capable to run Nepal, educated and learned. We demand atleast 50% representation in Nepal. We have requested enough, now is the time to snatch it.

    We all madheshis must be willing to fight for our brothers to end the brutal rule of pahades.

    Jai Madhesh

  • 3. akhilesh kumar singh  |  April 6, 2007 at 6:12 am

    hi

  • 4. Yok  |  February 1, 2008 at 8:20 pm

    Well, snatching thing is de nature of Dacoits not the activist! We should follow Gandhi. And Mr. Shrivastav stop talking shit out of you over here. People like you dont’ have any ethics nor you belong to any ethinic party.

    YOU alone cannot define what all Madesh People want? And ain’t we Nepali ra? Or do we feel shame about it? I am first Proud Nepali after that only Madeshi.

  • 5. sagar subedi  |  September 23, 2008 at 7:12 am

    all people living in madesh are madheshi so there shoud not be any discrimination between madheshi and pahadi

  • 6. Roshan kumar jha,KSL, Rautahat, Gaur  |  July 10, 2009 at 5:17 am

    Madhesh is also known as Terai in Nepal. The Flat, fertile southern belt of Nepal, 20-30km wide and stretching east to west is often considered as Tera or Madhesh. It covers 20% of land in Nepal. Madhesh is a term geven to areas of the Nepali outer Terai or to the outer Terai as a whole inhabited by the peoples who are racially, culturally, and linguistically related to people as the Indian side of the border.These peoples are referred to or refer to themselves as a Madhesi or Madheshi, Madesi, Mahgadesi and Deshwaali.The term “Madhesi”: encompass many different ethnic, linguistic and religious groups that inhabit the terai region. Madhesh is commonly believed to have been the kingdom of the legendary King Janak and as such, the Madhesi people are believed to put be part of the oldest culture in Nepal.
    Madhesi are an important segment of the population in Nepal. According to the population census 2001 based on mother tongue for village Development committees (VBCs), the Madhesi population was 6781111.5. If one were to go by this figure, the Madhesis formed 29.2% of the total population of Nepal in 2009. However Madhesi political leaders, scholars, and activists have long questioned these figures. They claim that the Madhesis form 40-50% of the total population in Nepal today.

    1.2 Objectives.
    To study about the geographical, cultural and Religious History of Madhesh.

    1.3 Limitations
    This seminar paper is limited to its topic.
    It only deals about the Geographical,religious, and cultural, History of Madhesh.

    1.4 Methodology
    Going throgh the books and magazines available in kathmandu school of laibrarary and Nepal Bharat pustakalaya.

    Chapter 2

    2.1 The Origin of the word ” Madhesh” and “Terai”
    The word “Madesh” may be derived from Sanskrit word ‘Madhya Desh’ meaning ‘country in the middle’ or magadh, it was so much powerful state after the fall of the Brijisangh. Some of the historians show its origin in ‘Matsya desh’ meaning ‘contry of fish’

    And etmologically, the word Madhesi is the adjectival form of Madhesh, which is usuall y refers to the Terai or Madhesh. While many theories have been developed about the origin of the word, the most popular one is that this land was the central kingdom of the mythical Hindu king Janak.

    And the word “Terai” is believed to be derived from Persian, which meant damp or moist land. But some historians are of the view that the word Terai emerges from the lower part of mountain. The Terai or Madhesh region begins at the Indian border and includes the northernmost part of the flat, intensively formed Gangetic plain called the outer Terai. This is culturally an axtension of northern India with Hindi, Awadhi, Bhojpuri anf Maithili spoken more than the Nepali, however it was annexed to Nepal by conquest and by treaty eith the British. The Terai or Madhesh ends and the Hills begin at a higher range of foothills called the Mahabharat range.

    2.2 Geographical History Of Madhesh.
    Mythologically, King Janak was the emperor of Mithila kingdom (eastern Madhesh) whose daughter Sita got married to Ram of Ayodhya (northern UP-India). The capital of Mithila was Janakpur which even at present is called by the same name. Lord Ram got married to goddess Sita in a “swayamvar”(self chosen groom) ceremony in King Janak’s palace. Today, Janakpur is an important city in the eastern Madhesh.
    2500 years ago Madhesh or the Nepalese Terai was a part of the greatest empire of ancient India – the Magadha Empire with Patliputra as its capital. The empire is supposed to have included almost all of present day Nepal along with Pakistan, Afghanistan, Central Asia, Bangladesh except southern tip of India.
    During this period Lord Buddha was also born in Lumbini of Awadh region, and hence can be regarded as the greatest Madheshi of all time. Lord Buddha helped simplify the existing faith and belief of Magadha empire which for 800 years is called Hindu and found a new religion of his own name “Buddha dharma” (in English – Buddhism).
    There however has been little attempt at finding the historical facts about this region and the archeologists of Nepal have rather resorted to connecting the archeological facts to Nepal rather than the grand history of “Bharatvarsha” to which all of South Asia once belonged.
    The history between the downfall of Magadha and arrival of Islam is very hazy. However a site in the Bara district called Simraungarh entails a fact that the dynasty of Tirhut or Sen existed and flourished in this region before rise of Islam, and art and architecture of completely separate and vivid from the Kathmandu architecture based on which new government buildings in Terai have been built sadly. There has been no attempt at renovating the historical architecture of Madhesh. Little is known about other archeological sites apart from Lumbini and Simraungarh that may exist. Islam is Madhesh is as old as in Northern India. And possibly Madhesh was a part of Mughal Empire though rest of Nepal wasn’t. This is proven by the fact that Muslims in Madhesh are also the natives of this region and they speak the same language as their Hindu counterparts. And no historical Muslim population is found elsewhere in Nepal.
    Madhesh was a part of Mughal’s Hindustan just as today’s Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh or India was.

    2.3 Cultural History Of Madhesh.
    The Madhesi culture is one of the oldest cultuer’s in the world.The Madhesi people have their own distinct culture, which is one of the oldest cultures in region. According to the Ramayana, the ruler of Mithila, King Janak, a Madhesi by present standards, had established the kingdom of Mithila with its capital in present-day Janakpur long before the Shah rulers had even entered Nepal. His daughter, Sita is still worshipped by Hindus as the ideal of womanhood. The Madhesi are the only people of Nepal other than the Newars to have a long history of civilized and cultured existence with opulent cities and culture since early eras. mostly the Madhesis are related by marriage to Indians across the border. Generally people speaking Maithili, Bhojpuri and Hindi and resemble Indians in appearance are considered as Madheshis. Their traditional man dress is dhoti and kurta and women dress is Sarees and blouse. Their main religion is Hinduism.

    2.4 Religion and Language of Madhesh.

    There is a great cultural diversity in the Madhesh. Its cultural diversity can be seen in the fact that three distinct religious groups—Hindu, Muslim and Jain—live there. Caste Hindus are the dominant social group in the Madhesh. The social structure of Madhesi caste Hindus is very similar to that of Hindus from the hills.
    Madheshi people speak various central and eastern dialects of Hindi language as their mother tongue, example: Maithili – 33%, Bhojpuri – 25%, Awadhi (including tharu awadhi) – 18% and rest speak Rajbanshi, Bengali, Santhal and other minor languages.
    The above mentioned languages or dialects are regional i.e. they are concentrated in a region for example – Maithili in the east, Bhojpuri in the central part and Awadhi in the western region of the Terai. However it would be foolish to demarcate boundary lines to separate these languages. These languages or dialects flow into one another and the dialects lying at the edges of their influence region can be categorized as either of the neighboring dialects, for example the local language of Rautahat can be classified as Bhojpuri as well as Maithili, for Lumbini as well the dialect can be referred to as Awadhi as well as Bhojpuri.
    The language of Madhesh or the dialects of Hindi are to a large extent mutually intelligible.
    The non-regional languages spoken in Madhesh is primarily Hindi (Urdu for Muslims) with Nepali now spoken due to its imposition on these people for few decades. English is comprehensible to educated class and Marwadi, Punjabi, Newari etc are spoken by the non-native communities living in the Terai.
    Several languages such as Maithili, Bhojpuri, Avadhi, Hindi, Nepali and Urdu are spoken by the Madhesi people. Maithili is the most commonly used language[1]. Hindi and Urdu are spoken as a vernacular all over the region but less as native.

    2.5 Literature of Madhesh.
    Madheshi people have been forced and purposely made unaware of the great literary culture they belong to by the ruling nepali class. They are historically linked to the literary works of Sant Kabir, Laxmi kant jha,Bhikari Thakur, Pandit Vidyapati, Kalidas, Soordas, Mirza Ghalib, etc who are regarded as the pillars of Hindi (and Urdu to some extent). Sadly the new generation can hardly recite poems of Kabir and Vidyapati but are fluent in reciting poems of Nepali language, which is actually a foreign culture and language to Madheshis or Deshwaalis.
    From among the natives of Terai, undoubtedly, Udit Narayan Jha has acquired greatest fame in the field of singing. He is noted for his soothing voice quality that suits all the Deshwaali languages. Apart from countless Bollywood songs, he’s sung in Maithili, Bhojpuri and Awadhi as well as Nepali.

    Chapter 3

    3.1 Madhesh was a part of Mithilanchaal.

    • The most important thing regarding Madheshis that anyone must remember is that Madhesh region of Nepal is not a sovereign and independent of itself. Let’s take a look. Physically it is a part of Nepal currently but ethnically it is a part of Mithilanchal and was physically too a part of Mithilanchal in past. Mithilanchal is a place where most of the people speak Maithili and infact is a mithila region that ranges from Terai parts of Nepal to northern parts of India, the capital of which is Janakpur which is located in Nepal where King Janak ruled and his palace locates here. So the aspirations of people of madhesh are more directed towards the people of mithilanchal where they have family ties and infact the motherland where people share same culture, customs and brotherhood. Like People born in Rukum have ties with people born in Dolpa culturally, politically and racially even if they don’t know each other but they understand people by culture and they take no time in recognizing each others. Obviously It is a natural phenomenon supported by science and similarly one who is the aborigine of Janakpur and one who is the aborigine of Darbhanga (a city in India in northern Bihar where the great poet Vidya pati was born and is a part of Mithilanchal) and both being the part of same anchal i.e. “Mithilanchal” no one can deny the fact that Mithilanchal is our home (both people living in Janakpur and Darbhanga) by birth like hilly region for pahadis. Its therefore common the internal migration taking place in Mithilanchal (eg. Some migrating from Darbhanga to Janakpur and some migrating from Janakpur to Darbhanga for their easiness and they see it migrating in their own home). Mithilanchal is a territory that occupies both the parts of India and Nepal. Infact Pahadi people want to be identified themselves by the name of Lord Sita and Gautam Buddha in the world but after recognizing they are the part of Terai and Mithilanchal they show their their outrage to madheshi people and infact become jealous at us. Its their judgement that the people of Terai are Indians and they say it because their only source of nationalism is anti-indianism . I don’t think there is any wrong in that because that is a truth because we had been Indians for so long and only before 238 years we physically became a part of Nepal. So there is no need to feel bad for Madheshis if somebody calls them Indian because it is Madheshis right to be called Indians. If people want to hear we calling Indians ourselves, we must tell them and clear them our identity and thus fight for that identity regarding the truth. And remember Truth always wins the battle whatever be the consequences and if not we will prove it so. We are mentally and physically prepared for that though we prefer to resolve the problem through table talk and common consensus rather than violence. But it has now been clear among all madheshis that they are not going to live under such inequality and injustice and with very negligible participation in state of affairs despite the madheshis accounting for half the population .Now we have already known that we are deciding our future and our way of living.

    And the Pahadis are fool to think that we Madheshis have forget our motherland , our culture and our social structure and accommodated in theirs because of their feudalistic power and threats under a controlled territory. Pahadis can not tolerate the fact of ties that Madheshis have to Mithilanchal of India. Besides they are always afraid of the future if whole the people of Mithilanchal comes and conquer the power in Nepal and they remain with nothing at all. But they must evaluate the consequences if that really does happen. And till now they have been successful to keep us under control knowing our weaknesses and fooling us in the name of Hinduism. They know Madheshis enjoy simple ,innocent and hard-working life with mutual understanding and brotherhood and thus they take advantage of our innocence and remain in power and utilizing all the resources that madheshis have (75% of revenue generated from terai and madheshi people) for their benefits alone. The reason they praise our valued Deepawali, Holi and chhat festival because they are well aware of our simple ,happy and brotherly life. Infact some kind of jeolosy is always there in their mind and they are aware that once we madheshis are given opportunity in state affairs we always tend to march above them politically and culturally.

    3.2 Recent development of Madhesh.

    Recently a movement called the Madhesi movement began in the Tarai, demanding an end to discrimination against the Madhesi people. The different parties involved in the movement range from student wings of the ruling parties to the armed Tarai Janatantrik Morcha (Tarai Populist Front) and thus the various demands of each group are different. In general, the unarmed groups are calling for a federal political system, whereas the armed rebels demand a separate state.
    Both the first president of Republic of Nepal – Ram Baran Yadav, and the first vice president- Parmanand Jha are Madheshis. During the oath taking ceremony, vice president Jha read his oath in Hindi. The constitution requires the oath to be taken in Nepali. Even though vice president Jha’s mother tongue is Maithili, he resorted to Hindi. This led to a widespread agitation throughout the country. Various political parties, organization and intellectuals have criticized the act of Jha. Jha later tried to justify his use of Hindi claiming that it is understandable to all residents in Terai districts, who speak different languages.

    3.3 Analysis and conclusion.
    After the unification, there is very little evidence of any of the Shah or Rana rulers trying to address the Madhesis. On the contrary, to appease the powerful families, army personnel from conquered principalities (mainly Kaski, Parbat, Lamjung and Kathmandu) were appointed as governors of the various parts of the Tarai, forcing the Madhesi into lives as perpetual second-class citizens.
    The “one nation, one culture” policy implemented by King Mahendra during his absolute rule did not only create a setback to cultures other than Khas,including Newar, Tamang, Magar, Kirat, Madhesi culture but also created an atmosphere in which their language was considered as foreign or anti-national. . A Madhesi like Udit Narayan Jha (who later went on to be one of the most successful Bollywood playback singers) was rejected as being unfit for singing in Radio Nepal (the state-controlled and then only radio station of Nepal), while Khas people from Darjeeling, politically a part of India, were provided privileged status for their patriotic songs depicting the life in the hills. Madhesis were also barred from joining the armed forces of Nepal.
    But nowadays if Madhes was a part of Nepal, then Madhesi have been given chance to prove their patriotism in Nepali Army,the most pat

  • 7. Roshan kumar jha,KSL, Rautahat, Gaur  |  July 10, 2009 at 5:22 am

    From above discussions, arguments and evidences, following points can be noted as summary:
    1. Madhesh and Terai refer to the same geographical region, in the present context of Nepal. However, Terai region is also found in India, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and ‘Terai’ refers to their respective regions when used in their contexts.
    2. Madhesh and Terai, both have been in use indiscriminately and synonymously in general context, in present day Nepal.
    3. Madhesh includes the connotation of identity and culture of people living in the region, whereas Terai refers to geographical feature or terrain characteristics of the region.
    4. Terai, popularized by enforcing the policy of “Nepalization” and lingual-cleansing process carries the connotation of “internal colonization”.
    5. Madheshis are residents of Madhesh sharing the correlated regional, cultural and lingual space.
    6. Tharu community living in the same region of Terai of Nepal or Madhesh, and sharing the regional, cultural and lingual space, is a subset of Madheshi community

  • 8. sahil  |  January 4, 2010 at 9:41 am

    sagar subedi g i kno all the people living in madhes is madhesi but u never provoked of all the people living in pahad is pahadi.did you?
    just think of it n comment ok bye

  • 9. Roshan kumar jha,Birgunj  |  July 25, 2010 at 9:04 am

    Everyone knows that constitution writing cannot be accomplished without the support of the Madhesh ans Madhesi youth. Despite knowing this, the ruling parties are trying to push the madhesh into a corner, which means that the government and the ruling parties do not want the constitution and peace in the country.
    If the present attitude of the khas Pahadi political parties remains unchanged, the constitution may not be written within the extended time as well. Thus, it is high time to act seriously and sincerely. Although time is running short, damage can still be controlled if the parties act sensibly on the issue of Autonomous Madhesh.
    Assit.Prof.Roshan kumar jha
    Terai school of Law, Birgunj

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People Celebrating faguwa (Holi), with the fun of music, quite popular among Terai people. Holi is celebrated each year on the eve of falgun purnima Faguwa (Holi) Celebration

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